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Mr. Dodds and Mr. Dillwyn, ib. ; Sanchi, the Tope at, drawings of, at fishery-boards and districts in the the Indian Museum, cxxx. 485; three kingdoms, ib. 182 ; prospects Mr. Fergusson's description of, of reform, ib.

502, 504; Colonel Maisey's drawSalt, presence of, in the atmosphere, ings of, 506 cxvi. 303

Sand, George. See Dudevant, taxes on, in France and Eng- Madame land, cxxxi. 385

Sandby (Mr.), his history of the Salvador (M. Joseph), his indiscri- Royal Academy, cxviii. 483; his

minate eulogy of the Mosaic law, qualifications, ib.; the publication cxvii. 198; disbelieves the mira- withdrawn, ib. cles of Moses, 199; his explana- ‘Sandford and Merton,' origin and tion of Christianity as a compro- authorship of, cxxvi. 490 mise, 200; his theory of an eclectic Sandon (Lord, the present, b. 1831), religion based on Judaism, 201; his imprudent speech in 1874 on his definition of Christianity ex- Education, cxl. 559 amined, 205

San Francisco, character of its popuSamarow (Gregor), his,'Um Scepter lation, cxxix. 460, turbulent early

und Kronen,' cxxxvii. 422; popu- history of, ib. larity of the work, ib.; the author

Baron Hübner's account of, supposed to be Herr Meding, ib.; cxxxviii. 72; steamers to Yokotoo dull for translation into Eng- hama, 73 lish, ib.; insipid character of the San Juan, Island of, occupation of, romance portion, 423; interview by General Harney, cxix. 458 ; between Manteuffel and Bismarck, the Oregon treaty examined, 459; ib. 426; war against Austria de- the “Douglas Channel' proposed termined on, 431; King George as a solution, 460 V. of Hanover at Herrenhausen, Sansavino (Andrea Contucci di, Tus433; Court of Vienna, 435; fight can sculptor), his works criticised, at Langensalza, 439; the Emperor cxxi. 545 Franz Joseph, 440; Napoleon III. Sanskrit, its grammar the foundation and Herr Hansen, 443, 444; of Greek, cxv. 74; its aid to the Drouyn de Lhuys, 445; scene at classification of languages, 83; the Tuileries after Sadowa, 446; history of, ib. ; importance of its Klindworth's embassy to Paris, study, 381 448; Herr von Beust, 449; Bis

discovery of, cxxxvi. 463 marck and Benedetti at Nikols- Santals, the aboriginal tribe of Benburg, 451; meeting of Napoleon gal, cxxix. 218, 224 with his Marshals at Paris, 452 ; Santiago (Spain), Gothic Cathedral and with the Empress Charlotte at, cxxii, 157 of Mexico, 454, 456; promised Santissima Trinidad,' the, case of, continuation of the novel, ib.

cxxxv. 575 Sambuco (Curzietto del), brigandage Sapphires, talismanic effects ascribed of, cxxxii. 302

to, cxxiv. 231; applied by Greeks • Same,' the adjective explained, cxl. and Romans to lapislazuli, 237; 249

etymology of, ib.; the red sapphire Samuelson (Mr. B.), his pamphlet or ruby, 241; other varieties, 242;

on the Irish Land Question, cxxxi. use of, in ancient gems, 552 282

Saracens, their desolation of the

Campagna at Rome, cxviii. 365 ;
watch-towers to protect the Italian
coasts against, ib.; their approach
to Rome, 366; defeated at sea by
Leo IV. and John VIII., 368;

their ravages in Italy, ib.
Saragossa, French siege of (1808),

cxxxi. 76, 80
Sarawak (Borneo), changes since

Brooke's arrival, cxvi. 403 ; failure
of Christian mission at, 405; at-

tacked by Chinese immigrants, 407
Sard, sardion, or sardius, etymology

of, cxxiv. 237; use of, in Greek

gems, 551

Sardanapalus, supposed Assyrian

origin of the namne, cxi. 63; incon-

sistent statements respecting, ib.
Sardinia, her sacrifice of Savoy to

France, cxi. 536; character of the
bargain, 537; disregard of treaties
securing the neutrality of Savoy,

549
Sargent (M.), his improved treatment

of idiots, cxxii. 39
Sarzana (Tommaso da). See Nicholas

V., Pope
Sasiola (de), Spanish Ambassador in

1483, cxxi. 202
Saskatchewan River, the, cxix. 476
Sassetti (Filippo), on the similarities

between Sanskrit and the lan-

guages of Europe, cxxxix. 419
Sattarah (India), annexation of,

cxvii. 17
Saturn (the planet), cxl. 422; the

• Rings' of, ib. 423
Sa'ud (Ibn Abdu-l-Aziz, Prince of

Wahabees, d. 1814), his alleged
capture of Mecca, cxxii. 509 note
Saughs, raid of the,' cxx. 331
Saunders (C. B.), Official Reports of,

on Berar, cxxxvii. 225
Saurin (James, 1677-1730), his

preaching at the Hague, cxxxviii.

214
• Saurin v. Star,' limits of conven-

tual obedience determined by the
case of, cxxx. 332

Saussure, his theory of glacier mo-
tion, cxiii. 228

his love of Alpine scenery,
cxxx. 119; his visit to Monte

Rosa, 120
Sauveur (Joseph, b. 1653), his dis-

covery respecting the vibrations of

sound, cxxvii. 104, 105
Savages, excess of brain-power above

their needs, cxxxiv. 204 ; their
capacity for music, 206

question of their primitive
state, cxxxv. 111.

See Man,
Primitive

degradation of language in
lowest races of, cxxxix. 439 note
Savannah (U.S.), Sherman's march

against, cxxi. 287; his capture of,

ib.
Savigny (Frederic Carl von, 1779-

1861), English translations of his
legal works, cxxx. 539; on im-

portance of the study of, 555
Savings Banks, early State encourage-

ment of, cxxxviii. 109; the Post
Office Savings Banks, ib.; not a
proper substitute for permanent
investments, 110; vicious policy
of Mr. Lowe, ib.; comparison of

Consols, 111
Savonarola (Jerome, 1452-1498),

his political theocracy, cxxxvi.
146, 147; his short-lived influ-

ence, ib.

Savoy (Charles Emmanuel, Duke of,

1562-1630), his claim to the Man-
tuan succession, cxxiii. 37; his
character by M. Cousin, 42; in-
trigues against Richelieu, 43; his
suspicious conduct to the Allies,

48
Savoy, recent annexation of, by

France, cxi. 535; previous com-
pact between France and Sardinia,
ib. ; averse to the Austrian war,
536 ; treaty of 1564 with Switz-
erland, 539; policy of Emmanuel
Philibert, ib.; contests with Ge-
neva, 540; peace of St. Julien,
Lieutenant-General, ib. ; his exploit at the taking of Prague, 524; his meeting with Brübl at Dresden, ib. 525; captures Egra, 525; failure of his mission to the Czarina, 526; named to command Charles Edward's intended descent on England, 527; at Fontenoy, 528; his equipage of actors, 532; anecdote of, at Péronne, 533; his victory at Lawfeld, 534; a retired officer after the peace, ib.; his death, 535; his military genius,

536, 537

ib.; alliance of Victor Amadeus with Austria, 541 ; French invasion, ib. ; the Cantons resist annexation to France, 542; negotiations in 1704, ib.; origin of the idea of neutralisation, ib.; French aggression in 1792, ib. ; partition of, in 1814, at the Treaty of Paris, 543 ; importance of neutralising Chablais and Faucigny, 544 ; passes entrusted to Switzerland, 545 ; article of the Congress of Vienna, ib.; second treaty of Paris, 546; topographical details, ib.; declaration of neutrality in 1815 disregarded by France, 548; and by

Sardinia, 549 Sawtree (W.), execution of, for

heresy, cxxxiv. 163 Saxe (Maurice, Count de, Marshal,

1696-1750), Dr. Weber's life of, cxx. 500; romance attached to his memory, ib.; his illegitimate birth, 502; his early life, ib.; joins the army, 505; abrupt close of his autobiography, 506; his first taste of warfare, 507; his schooling renewed, ib. 508; rejoins the allied army in Flanders, ib.; receives a royal pension, ib.; his marriage, 509; his extravagancies, 510; accusations against his wife, 511; divorced, 512; his sentiments on marriage, 513; his gambling habits, ib.; instance of his courage, 514; received into the French service, 615; story of him at Paris, ib. 516; his visit to England, ib.; elected Duke of Courland, 517,518; interview with Prince Menschikow, 519; anecdote of his offending the Duchess Anna, 520; his escape from the Russians, ib.; his intimacy with the actress Adrienne Lecouvreur at Paris, 521 and note; his work "Mes Rêveries,' 522; praised by Frederick the Great as a tactician, ib. ; joins the Duke of Berwick at Ettling, 523; made

Saxon, original definition of, as ap

plied to England, cxxi. 37 note Saxon Chronicle, the, unique value

of, cxxi. 10, 11; absence of national feeling in its account of the

Conquest, 30, 31 Saxony, introduction of silk manu

factures into, cxvi. 179 Saxony, ducal house of, its connexion

with the Royal family of England,

cxxxii, 92 Scandinavia, early poetry of, cxiv.

429; its enigmatic character, 432; alliterative verse, 434; the · Woof

of War,' 435 Scandinavian: kingdoms, future of,

discussed, cxxxiv. 236; Union movement of 1864 commenced by Sweden, 244; the Union of Calmar, 245; causes of its failure, ib. 247; present difficulties to the scheme, ib. ; position of Slesvig, ib.; possible solutions of the question, 248; Russian and German designs, 249; English interests,

ib.

Scarabæus, or beetle-stone, the,

cxxiv. 534, 544 Scarron (Madame). See Maintenon,

Madame de Scharf (Mr. G.), his services to the

National Portrait Gallery, cxxiv.

350 Scharnhorst (Gerhard, 1756-1813),

life of, by G. H. Klippel, cxl. 287;

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his early life, 292; enters Count theory of glacier motion, cxiii.
William of Lippe's military aca- 227
demy, 293 ; his commission from

Schiaparelli (Professor), director of
George III, as cornet, 294; his the Milan observatory, his memoir
career in the Hanoverian service, on meteoric showers, cxl. 416
ib. 298; his teaching at the Artil- Schiller (John Christopher Frede
lery School at Hanover, 296; rick von, 1759-1805), his literary
brilliant exploits against the character by Sir A. Alison, cxi.
French, 298; masterly night- 160
march from Menin, 300; accepts Schirren (Professor), his conclusive
service on the Prussian Staff, 303; pamphlet on the Baltic provinces,
jealousies at his appointment, 305; cxxxii. 66
his artillery teachings at Berlin, Schisme. Treatise of,' work sup-
306; promotions by the king, ib.; pressed by Elizabeth, cxxxiv. 174
his labours for the Military Society, Schlegel (August Wilhelm von,
307 ; letter to his son on war with 1767-1845), his essay on Fra
France, 310; bis services recog- Angelico's Coronation of the Vir-
nised by Blücher, 312; his labours gin, cxxii. 80, 81
with Stein and Hardenberg, 315;

on the mechanical and organ-
reorganisation of the Prussian ical forms of translation, cxxiii.
army after Jena

, 319; later im- 367
portance of his military studies, Schlegel (Frederick von, 1772–1829),
ib.

on the Indo-Germanic tribe of
Schaumburg (Lippe, Count William languages, cxv. 85

of, d. 1777), patronage of, by Schliemann (Dr. Heinrich), bis
George II., cxl. 288; his service in works on ancient Troy, cxxxix.
the Seven Years' War, ib.; suc- 506; his excavations described
cess in Portugal, 289; his maxims therein, 507; his praiseworthy
of military study, ib. ; his reforms labour and zeal, 508 ; question of
in Hanover, 290; his military the site of Ilomeric Ilium before
school on the Steinhuder Lake, his researches, 512; state of
291 ; his pupil Scharnhorst's esti- things at his arrival, 513; his
mate of him, 292

ardent study of Homer, ib.; his
Scheffer (Ary, 1795–1858), his mar- Ithaca, Peloponnese, and Troy,'

vellous power of expression, cxii. ib.; excavations on Hissarlik, 514;
161; his contemplative tempera- stone implements discovered, 516;
ment, 162; his conduct in the layers of débris, 517; discovery of
Revolution of 1830, 164; his the great tower,' and Scæan gates,
attachment to the Orleans family, 518; of Priam's treasures,' 519:
166; disgusted with the coup female ornaments, 520; his belief
d'état, 170 ; growth of his talent in the literal accuracy of Homer's
indicated by his paintings, 172; account, 521; non-Hellenic cha-
religious influences, 173; character racter of relics, as judged from
of his portraits, ib.

photographs, 522 ; owl-headed
Schelling(Frederick William Joseph, vases, 523 ; hasty deductions,

1775–1854), his lectures at Munich, 524 ; on the δέπας αμφικύπελλον of
cxl. 233; his scheme of teaching Homer, 526 ; argues from Greek
Latin in England, 234

customs to Trojan, ib.; are the
Scheuchzer (of Zurich), his earliest relics pre-Hellenic ? 527; architec-

tural monuments, 528; the Homeric Troy limited to Pergamus, 529; his claims open to dispute, 531; summary of ķis conclusions, ib.; historical truth of Trojan war not proved by his discovery of remains, 532; topographical conjectures, 534; the Homeric account criticised, 535; the inscriptions disappointing, 538 ; terra-cotta fusaioli or carrousels, 539; implements of the stone-age, 540; and

of bronze, 543 Schnorr (Professor), his frescoes at

Munich, cxxiii. 11 ; his rate of

workmanship, 19 Schomberg (Frederic,

(Frederic, Duke of, 1619-1690), his campaign in Ireland, cxxi. 514; his death at

the Boyne described, 515 School-Boards, creation of, by the

Act of 1870, cxxxix. 214; their duties and conduct, ib. 233 ; recent charges against the London SchoolBoard, ib. 238; the Birmingham

Board, 244 Schools. See Education Schoolcraft (H. R.), his information

respecting the Indian tribes of the United States, cxxv. 332; on the

foreign origin of the Mexicans, 355 Schulenburg (General von, 1661

1747), his masterly retreat across the Oder, cxx. 505; Voltaire's remark on, ib.; his advice to

Maurice, Count of Saxe, 506 Schwabe, on certain spots on the

planet Jupiter, cxl. 420 Schwarzenberg (Prince), his anti

Prussian policy as premier, cxxx.

422; opposed by Bismarck, ib. Sciarra (Marco di), brigandage of,

cxxxii. 302 Science, the term defined, cxiv. 464

utilitarian views of, cxv. 75

popular treatment of, cxxii. 423

its alleged discrepancy with Scripture, cxl. 69

Science (Modern), principles and

methods of, cxxxiii. 146 ; recent strides in, ib.; insoluble questions in, 147 ; obscure definitions applied to physics, 148; tyranny of words in, ib.; mystery as to motive cause of matter, 150; relations of matter and force, ib.; gravitation, 152; vital forces and volition, 153; functions of chemistry in regard to matter, 155; the atomic theory, 156 ; spectrum analysis, 157; new methods of analysis, 158; synthetical branch of, 161; complexity of chemical systems, 162 ; phenomena of electricity, ib. 166; relations of man with the lower animals, 170, 175

inroads of speculation on, cxxxvii. 493, 499 Science (Natural), its evidences li

mited to probabilities, cxvi. 311 Science (Physical), principle of the

conservation of energy, cxxx. 138,

142 Scientific Education. See Education,

Scientific "Sconce,' the word in Shakspeare

explained, cxxxvi. 369, 373 Score,' Northern origin of the word,

cxl. 248 Scotland, Silurian discoveries in,

cxii. 89; Old Red Sandstone deposits, 97; Permian formations, 101 ; dearth of Jacobite accounts of the two rebellions, 332; early prejudice against the Act of Union, 338; position of the Covenanters, 345 ; feelings of the Highlanders towards the Stuarts, 349; military incapacity of the insurgents in '15, 355 ; County histories of, 489; labours of Scott, Gordon, and Sibbald, 491; editions of literary clubs, 495 and note; early affinity of the Lowlanders and Northern English, 502 ; Flemish colonisation of, 503 ; appointment of Sheriffs in. 504 ; ancient duties of

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