« EdellinenJatka »
suitable to the discussion of such a ques of the languages of Europe, which are tion, can present itself, than that on, all more or less assimilated to our own, which we are this day assembled. I cannot reasonably be expected to enable allude to the existence of an opinion, a student to render himself master of that a knowledge of the'languages of the any of the languages of Asia, which country, amply sufficient for all practical are formed upon principles possessing ng purposes, is equally attainable in the dis analogy to those which regulate the concharge of the ordinary duties of the pub struction of the European tongues; lanlic service, as at the College of Fort Wil guages, therefore, new not only in chaliam, and that consequently, the junior racter and phraseology, but also in the part of the Company's servants are with very form of their application to all the held, during a considerable period of purposes of human intercourse; for the time, from the employments for which approximation of languages of different they are destined, without any adequate nations naturally corresponds with the advantage.
approximation of the degrees of science “ The opinion is usually maintained and of arts, and with a similarity of by a' reference to the times antecedent to laws, religion, manners and habits, In the institution of the college. It is al all these respects, it is superfluous to leged, that, under the pre-existing state observe, the nations of Europe , assimiof Oriental acquirements among the ser late with one another, and collectively vants of the Company, every branch of differ in an extreme degree from the nathe administration, civil, military and tions of Asia : and hence proceeds the political, was conducted with a degree difficulty which opposes the progress of a of success amply demonstrated by the native of Europe in the acquisition of history of those events and transactions any of the eastern 'tongues. The Enwhich have raised the British empire in glish student has not merely to learn the India to its present condition of pre grammar and idiom of the language: ; eminence, and by the prosperity of its he has to acquire new combinations of internal administration, , which, gene ideas; new, modes of metaphor; newi rally speaking, has been progressive, forms of expression, to convey meanings during those times, throughout the whole which might be embodied in any of the extent of our Indian dominions.--Par- foreign dialects of Europe, by, a mere, ticular instances of more than ordinary translation and transposition of words. ; acquirement, and the universality of the “ It is therefore, rather a subject of power and practice of personal commu surprize, that at the period of quitting nication and correspondence between the the college, the students generally should servants of the Company and the natives have acquired the degree of proficiency of the country, are also referred to, in which they are found to possess, in the support of the opinion.
several languages to whicb they have deit But these admitted facts will not, voted their attention, than that they on examination, be found by any means should leave it with a stock of knowledge conclusive, with respect to the position yet insufficient for all those practical purs which they are adduced to maintain.—. poses, to which, in the course of their The advocates of that position must as public duties, they may have occasion to sume, either that the college has not the apply the powers of written or colloquial effect of augmenting the knowledge of the language. Oriental languages among the servants of “ This concession, however, will not the Company beyond the degree attaina authorise the inference, that the studies ble, and actually attained antecedently which confer a degree of knowledge in
its institution, or that a general im sufficient for the practical purposes of pubprovement in this respect is not pro- lic service, would be advantageously, exductive of any material benefit in the changed for those employments to which administration of public affairs. It is the civil servants of the Company were necessary therefore, in the first instance, formerly appointed, on their arrival in to meet those assumptions,
India. “ It may certainly be admitted, that, “ The advantage which the student de with the exception of some extraordinary rives from the tuition of the college is, instances of proficiency, referable to a the acquisition of an abundant stock of combination of opportunity, talent, and fundamental knowledge; a knowledge of exertion, the knowledge which the stu the principles, construction, and peculidents acquire during the short period of arities of the languages which he studies, their continuance in college, is far from combined also with a certain degree of conferring on them that practical use of practical skill in reading, translating and language, which is necessary to serve all conversing. Antecedently to the institu, the purposes of intercourse and corres tion of the College of Fort William, where pondence with the natives of India, in were the means of obtaining the fundathe transaction of public affairs. A pe- mental instruction to be found ? not in riod of time, which could not suffice for the few imperfect works, which the methe complete acquisition of any one even ritorious labours of early orientalists
prosecuted under every circumstance of those two great organs of intercourse and difficulty and disadvantage, had given to communication, the Persian and the Hinthe public: nor in the capacity of native doostanee tongues, and forms the recepteachers to communicate the rules and tacle of the code of laws administered to principles, to explain the difficulties, 'and the millions whom we govern, and the impart the genius of their respective lan- Sunskrit, which enshrines the mythology, guages, even when the instructor and his the history, and the law of the Hindoos, pupil had the rare advantage of being mu and claims the parentage of the numetually intelligible.
rous affiliated languages of the peninsula, “The consequence was such as might could boast only of a few occasional vobe expected; the industrious few, who taries, who, by the light of genius and had the patience to persevere in opposi the aid of preserving industry, acquired tion to these disadvantages, acquired, and imparted a knowledge of those lanafter a long and laborious application, a guages, and sowed the seeds of that learnpractical, but still an imperfect, use of ing which, under the auspices of the Colthe languages which they studied. They lege of Fort William, has been so successimbibed little knowledge of the principles fully cultivated, and so widely diffused. and rules of grammatical construction; " The proportion of the servants of and the degree of practical skill which the Company, who acquired a knowledge they ultimately attained, was rather the of the Persian language, was comparaeffect of persevering imitation, than the tively inconsiderable, and the general fruit of systematic study aided by the standard of proficiency in that language lights of philological science. The bulk of was extremely low. Unaided by a Moon-' the Company's servants were contented shee, few were capable of executing even with the degrees of proficiency in the the ordinary business of trauslating from languages forming the medium of corres Persian into English, and still fewer were pondence, of record and of oral commu able to perform the converse of that ope. nication, which was attainable in the or ration with any degree of grammatical dinary intercvurse with the natives of the correctness, without the same assistance. country, and in the transaction of public “ The nice and intricate rules, which business.
govern the construction of the Hindoos“ In the College, the utmost facility tanee language; the peculiarities which is afforded, for the attainment of every distinguish that lauguage; the elegance, language that can be required for the pnr the variety and the power of which it is poses of the public service, within the susceptible, were brought to light by the limits of the territories immediately long and arduous labours of Dr. Gilchrist, subject to this presidency. The in who had the merit of exploring, by the dustry and erudition of its professors, mere force of genius and industry, the and others attached to the college, and nature and conformation of that complex the encouragement extended by a liberal and intricate dialect. The knowledge government to the learned and the dili- which, prior to that æra, the servants of gent, have supplied all the aid that can the Company in general attained, of a be derived from the labours of philology, language so extensive in its use and apand from the gradation and variety of plication, and so intimately connected classical works; and to these is super with every branch of the administration added, the incalculable advantage of being of this empire, naturally corresponded enabled to prosecute the study of the lan with the obscurity which prevailed, until guages, under the personal guidance and dispelled by the philological labours of the instructions of learned European tutors, author of the Hindoostanee grammar and
“ The elemental knowledge and prac- dictionary, and by the progressive operatical proficiency, which the junior ser tions of the college. Having no access to vants of the present day have thus the grammatical instruction, nor even to books means of obtaining, by a short residence composed in the Hindoostanee language,in the college, constitute a foundation, for of the latter none but a few poetical on which it is in the power of every indi works were in existence,-the servants of vidual to raise a noble superstructure. the Company principally derived their The materials are placed at bis disposal ; acquaintance with that language from he has acquired the mode and the habit their intercourse with the natives, in the of combining them; and when natural ordinary concerns of private life, and in capacity is not deficient, the progress of the transaction of public affairs. improvement can only be limited by apa “ It cannot be supposed that, by means thy or intention.
such as these, an enlarged and accurate « For want of these advantages, the knowledge of the colloquial language of number of those who attained to any de India could possibly be attained, and in gree of proficiency in the languages of fact, the number who possessed the power India, antecedently to the institution of of maintaining a conversation in that the college, was extremely confined. language, with any degree of elegance or
“ The language of Arabia, which en propriety, or even of expressing in adeters so largely into the composition of quate terms the purpose of the mind, as Asiatic Journ.No. II.
Vol. I. z
it arises in the progress of colloquial in the Company, has been augmented and tercourse, of argument and of negociation improved in a very extensive and sensible in the transaction of affairs, whether degree. I might also refer to specific public or private, was extremely limited. instances of the power of elocution and
" The language of Bengal, a know of composition in the languages of India, ledge of which is so obviously important possessed by several public officers holding in official situations within the limits of high situations, who have passed through the province, was generally neglected and the studies of the college, in proof of the unknown by the public servants who advantages which an institution like this filled those situations.
is exclusively calculated to afford in the “ How essential, how extensive has acquisition of the oriental languages. been the change in all these respects, ir It remains, however, to advert to since the establishment of the College of the argument adduced, in proof of the Fort William! gentlemen, eminently dis sufficiency of the knowledge of the Easttinguished for their knowledge and ac ern languages generally possessed by the quirements in each of these languages, Company's servants antecedently to the are now the organs of instruction to institution of the college, which is foundsuccessive bodies of the junior ser ed on the progressive prosperity and power vants of the Company, civil and mili of the British dominion in India, and on tary.--The profound oriental learning of the success which attended the adminisDr. Lumsden, professor of Arabic and tration of the concerns of this great emPersian, has supplied that great deside pire. When we contemplate our situaratum, a complete grammar of the Persian tion in this country ; when we reflect language; and the first part of his valua that we are governing a population of ble Arabic Grammar has also been given many millions, to whom our langauge is to the public ;-works, of which I ven unknown, whose religion, habits, manture confidently to affirm, that they not ners, usages and prejudices wholly differ only embrace a most able and scientific from our own, no argument would seem arrangement and illustration of gramma requisite to prove, that the diffusion of tical rules, calculated to afford the amplest the benefits and blessings of a British admeans of acquiring a critical knowledge ministration among these our subjects, of those languages, but that they also must essentially depend on the degree in develop and exemplify the principles of which the power of communication with general grammar, in a degree yet unri the natives of India is possessed by the valled by any of the philologists of Europe. public officers employed in the various
" In addition to these and other philo branches of this great and complicated logical works, books requisite for the
government. Splendid as has been the study of every language taught in the career of our dominion, prosperous as has college, have been collected, composed or been the conduct of its internal concerns, compiled ; every obstacle which formerly who will allege that no advantages have impeded the progress of the student has been lost, no evils have been incurred, been removed ; every possible facility has which a skilful use of the powers of lanbeen supplied, by the labour and erudition guage might not have secured and preof the professors and learned natives at vented ? tached to the college. The effect has “ Who will say that improved means been commensurate with the means which of direct intercourse with our subjects have been provided.--Exclusively of the are not indispensably required, to co-openumerous instances of eminent and ex rate with the enactment and administratraordinary proficiency, which have done tion of salutary laws, for the purpose of honour to the institution, the college has diffusing the knowledge and the practice annually transferred to the public service of those principles of conduct, whick a body of young men, most, if not all, have a tendency to exalt the standard cr of whom had acquired a fundamental national character, to diminish the preknowledge of two or more languages; valence of immorality and crime, and to and some had risen to high practical pro promote the general welfare and happi. ficiency, not only in those which may be ness of the inhabitants of these territotermed the living languages of India, but ries? Who will maintain, that far greater also in the abstruse and refined reposito advances in the attainment of such imries of oriental learning and science, the portant purposes might not long since Arabic and Sunskrit ;-and although it have been made, if the existing facilities was not to be expected that the advan of Oriental study and acquirement had tages the college should be improved in early times enabled the Company's ser, by all the students; that the seed should vants to arrive at that proficiency, which grow and flourish in every soil in which is now so generally attained ? it had been sown, yet I do not incur the “ All therefore who unite in the opihazard of error, when I assert, that the nion which I profess to entertain, of the general stock, both of theoretical and great advantages of this institution, even practical acquaintance with the languages when considered merely as the means of of the country, among the servants of stiinulating and enabling the civil and
military servants of the Company to ac a delegated capacity, I am not perhaps quire an intimate and critical knowledge entitled to assume a personal relation to of the languages of the East, must anx the college, yet having had the honor to iously desire'its stability ; and to such it fill an active situation in it at the infancy must be satisfactory to reflect, that the of its establishment, and having both in college has been formally recognized by an
that situation and in a higher department act of the Legislature, as well as that of the institution, witnessed its efficacy the Hon. Court of Directors continue to and its advantages, I cannot refrain from afford to it their indispensable support; taking this opportunity of professing a deeming their College of Hertford, so far warın personal interest in its prosperity, as it embraces the study of the Eastern and an earnest solicitude for its permalanguages, to be calculated only to bestow nent duration." an elementary preparation for the more efficient and exclusive studies of this insti
Catalogue of Literary Works, the pub“ I am aware, that the benefits of the lication of which has been encouraged College of Fort William, considered in a by Government, at the recommendageneral point of view, have been disputed tion of the Council of the College of on grounds which have reference to the Fort William, since the period of the habits and private conduct of the stu Disputations held in 1814. dents; that the advantages of efficient 1.-KIRATAYOONEEYU, a celebrated hisinstruction in the Oriental languages torical work, in the original Sunskrit, have been deemed to be overbalanced by with the commentary of Mullee Nath, the example and contagion of dissipation an account of which is given by the learnand extravagance.
ed Mr. H. Colebrooke, in his essay on “ But I have no reason to believe, that Sunskrit and Prakrit poetry, published the degree of discredit to which the col in the Asiatic Researches, vol. 10th, lege may have been exposed in this res page 431. (Calcutta edition.) pect, has proceeded rather from the pro 2.-VEERUMITRODUYU, is a complete minent misconduct of a few, who per- digest of Hindoo law, on the adminishaps in any situation would have disre tration of justice. It is divided, like garded the obligations of duty and dis other complete digests, into two parts; cretion, than from the general prevalence one on trial at law in general, and the of irregularity in the body of the stu other on the several subjects of litigation dents; and to whatever extent the charge in particular. Under the first head, the might have been justly applicable at some legal rules of pleading are set forth and period of the institution, I have the sa explained ; and the law of evidence, writtisfaction to know that, at the present ten and oral, with prescription, and other time, instances of deviation from the branches of the important head of proof. maxims and rules of prudence and pro Under the second, the various heads of priety (for such must always exist in contracts and succession, together with every large association) are exceptions criminal law, and questions concerning to the general system of conduct ob real property amply discussed. The servable among students of the college. whole contains a rich and well arranged “ This gratifying improvement may,
collection of the text of ancient legislators, perhaps, be traced to sources beyond the and the docta of the most esteemed comlimits of this establishment; but to the pilers and commentators. The work was paternal superintendance of the govern- compiled for practical purposes, a little ment; to the vigilance of the respectable more than a century ago, for one of the members of the college council; to the independent Hindoo Rajahs of Hindoos-advice and attention of the professors tan. It is deservedly held in great estiand officers, and to the operation of the mation in the Benares school, including salutary rules and ordinances of the col- all the Hindoostanee provinces. It is the lege, must also be attributed in a mate best modern digest, as the Smriti Chunrial degree, the actual state of its moral drika is the best ancient one. Edited by prosperity.
Babooram Pundit. “ At the same time, it is certainly to 3.-SUBHA Bilas, a work in the Bruj be desired, that the means of promoting Bhak,ha, consisting of approved extracts the important object of collegiate disci- in poetry, from various authors, compiled pline should be systematized in the Col- by Moonshee Lulloo, for the use of the lege of Fort William, as in other similar students of the Bhak,ha class. This institutions, by arrangements calculated work has lately been published. to meet those evils and defects, the real 4.-A K,HUREE BOLEE and ENGLISH or supposed existence of which, has in- VOCABULARY, of all the principal words duced persons of acknowledged judgment, in the Premsagur, or History of Krishnu, to doubt the expediency of this system with the corresponding Sunskrit etymoof Oriental education.
logy of each term, when it could be L" Gentlemen! acting as I now am in clearly ascertained, by Lieut, Williant
Price, Assistant Professor of the Ben the Scriptures in Chinese are now printing galee and Sunskrit languages. The uti at Serampore. lity of this vocabulary will not be confined to the work from whence the words have The following Works, mentioned in the been extracted, since they are of constant Appendix to the Discourse of His Exoccurrence in other Khuree bolee and cellency the Visitor of the College of Bhak,ha compositions, and this arrange Fort William, at the Disputations of ment and mode of execution will very 1814, have since been completed. considerably facilitate the subsequent un 1. SOOHRAB, A POEM, the translation dertaking of a complete K,huree bolee from Persian into English, of an episode, dictionary.
in the celebrated epic poem of Firdousse, 5, 6, 7.--HITOPUDESHU, from the Sun entitled the Shah Namu, by J. Atkinson, skrit, also the BUTTEESEE SING HASU Esq. acting assistant secretary and exaNU, from the Sunskrit and the PRUTA miner in the College of Fort William. PADITYU, from the Bengalee, have been 2. The KHIRUD UFroz, originally translated in the Muhratta language by
translated into the Hindoostanee language, learned natives, under the superinten- by Muo!uvee Hufeez ood deeni Uhmud, dence of the Rev. Dr. Carey, for the use from the Uyari Danish, written by the of students of the Mahratta class.
celebrated Shuekh Ubool Fuzl, Prime The two former works have been pub- Minister to the illustrious Ukbur, Emlished, and the third is at present in the
peror of Hindoostan : revised and compress.
pared with the original Persian, and pre8.-A collection ORIENTAL LETTERS
pared for the press by Captain Thomas in the Muhratta language, is likewise in
Roebuck, acting secretary and examiner
in the College of Fort William, in two course of publication.
volumes, royal octavo. This work is an 9.-POOROOSHU PUREEKSHYA, or the elegant paraphrase of the book known in Test of Man, a work containing the Europe, by the name of Pilpay's Fables, moral doctrines of the Hindoos, trans which have been satisfactorily traced to a lated into the Bengalee language, from work in the Sunskrit language, entitled the Sunskrit, by Huruprusad, a Pundit Punchu T'untru, of which the celebrated attached to the College of Fort William, book, called the Hitopudeshu, is an afor the use of the Bengalee class. It is a bridgement, written above twelve cendelineation of eminence of character, in turies ago, by a learned Brahman, named many situations of human life, and con Vishnoo Shurmu. It contains all the mosists of forty-eight stories, illustrative ral polity and wisdom of the East, exthereof. Some of these describe men pressed in the most polished dialect of eminent for moral virtue; others, men the Hindoostanee language. Perhaps no eminent for heroic or daring actions ; book in the world (the sacred writings others are represented as examples of excepted) has undergone so many verhigh qualifications; and others, of ex sions, or has been translated into so traordinary folly or wisdom, virtue or many languages, as the fables above-menvice. The whole forming an useful mis tioned. A full account of the various cellany of eastern manrıers and opinions. transpositions of the fables of Pilpay
10. “ Clavis Sinica, a work on the is given in the English preface, prefixed Chinese language, consisting of two parts. work by the editor. Part the first contains a dissertation, of 3. THE QAMOOS, a celebrated dictionpages 80, on the origin, nature and for
ary in the Arabic language, has been mation of the Chinese characters; and a completed to the close of the first part, second dissertation (comprising pages 102) wbich has passed the press. on the colloquial medium of the Chinese, The types which have been employed in wherein its nature is laid open, and its printing this edition, were formed under connexion with the colloquial media of the immediate inspection of the learned the surrounding countries carefully traced : editor, Shurkh Uhmud Shirwanee, a naPart the second (pages 384) contains a tive of Yumun in Arabia, and the author grammar of the Chinese language, in of several Arabic works, composed for which the construction of the language is the use of the Students of the College of illustrated by nearly five hundred exam Fort William. He has paid particular atples, selected from the best Chinese au tention to this department of luis labours. thors, ancient and modern. To the work The book is neatly printed, and has the is added, by way of appendix, the Tahyoh, singular advantage of being complete in an ancient work, on the nature of Go the vowel points throughout the volume, vernment. An English translation on -a measure absolutely necessary, to rethe same page accompanies, the Chinese move those difficulties and obscurities of text, and a praxis at the end explains each meaning, which so frequently occur in character as it occurs. By J. Marshman, the greater number of the manuscript D.D. The Chinese part of the work is copies of this work. printed with the metal types with which 4. The Supplement to the MUQAMAT