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manders and first and second mates of the according to the seniority of such comCompany's own ships, be henceforth manders, subject to the approbation of in the Committee of Correspondence. the Committee of Shipping; and that
That the recommendation to the ap the vacancies of assistant surgeons be pointment of officers to the Company's filled up as before provided for. own ships, under the rank of second mate, That the medical appointments be be with the Committee of Shipping. made at the same time that the comman
That the number of midshipmen be, ders and officers of the Company's own for ships under 800 tons, four ; of 800
ships are nominated. tons and under 1000, six; of 1000 tons
That the appointment of pursers be and upwards, seven.
given to the commanders of the CompaThat no appointment of supernume
ny's own ships respectively, subject to rary midshipman, or of succession to
the approbation of the Committee of the office of midshipman, or of any per Shipping. son to act as a midshipman, beyond those above mentioned, be allowed. With respect to the Commander and
That the first appointment of midship Officers of a Ship lost or taken, men to the Company's own ships be by
That the commander and officers of the members of the Court in succession,
a ship lost or taken, if they are acquitted according to seniority ; so that every
of all blame with respect to such loss member of the Court should have one
or capture, and the ship should not be nomination before any member shall
replaced, should not be reappointed to have a second ; and that no midshipman
the Company's own service, so as to to be appointed, shall be less than four
displace officers in actual employ; but teen years of age, or more than eighteen
should be eligible, if the Court should years of age, unless he has been at sea,
so please, to return to the Company's in which case, for every year he has been
own service, according to their former at sea, the age of admission may be ex
rank, and not otherwise, as vacancies tended as far as to his twentieth year.
may happen. That the complement of midshipmen assigned to any ship, be appointed a With respect to Vacancies occurring fortnight before the period fixed for
when Ships are abroad. the ship to be afloat; otherwise, such
That if any vacancy should occur when to be immediately filled up by the mem
a ship is abroad, the appointment thereber of the Court next in rotation,
to, whether by the Indian government, That the medical servants now actually the select Committee at Canton, or the in the Company's own service, shall have
commander of the ship, be by seniority the same preference hereafter as naval
in the ship, if the party is eligible ; but officers in their own employ.
that such appointment should on no That the further appointments which account be otherwise than temporary. may be made for the Company's own The command of a ship, however, not ships of medical men, not now actually to be given to any officer who is not in their own service, be recommended, competent by the rules of the service to of persons properly qualified, by the
a command, if such command can be members of the Committee of Shipping otherwise supplied, according to those for the time being, in rotation, begin rules at the place where the vacancy may -ning with the chairs, and proceeding happen. according to seniority. That after the ships now belonging
With respect to
a Fund for decayed to, or engaged for, the Company, shall Commanders and Oficers. have had their medical establishment That it will be expedient to establish completed, all appointments of surgeons a special Fund for the relief of decayed in the Company's own ships be made and superannuated commanders and from the class of assistant surgeons in officers of the Company's own ships, those ships, giving the selection of such upon principles and according to regulasturgeons to the respective commanders, tions to be hereafter prescribed.
To the Editor of the Asiatic Journal.
SIR,—The recent treaty with the word God. I remember, that Candians, by which His Majesty Rubruquis, the old traveller in is pledged, as it respects that peo- Tartary, repeats the words of a ple, to protect the religion of woman, who said, that she would Buddha, and the pleasing account take or devote“ her daughter to which we have had of the attentions the bod” (something, I suppose, paid by the British Government in like placing her in a nunnery). Ceylon, on occasion of the resto The word bod, my author renders ration of that form of divine wor or idol,” a point of little conship in Candy, have, no doubt, ex sequence, because there is no quescited in many of those who are to tion but the "god” was represented be the readers of the Asiatic Jour- under an image. What I undernal, a desire to be better acquainted stand is, that God, Bod, Wod, Gowith the history, doctrine, and dam, Woden, Odin, are words of practice of that system. In the similar signification, and constitute course of some inquiries into reli a common, not a proper name. gious history, in which I have in. Thus, I would say, that Isis and dulged, the name and peculiarities Osiris were the bods or buddhas of of Buddhism have a good deal the Egyptians, and Jupiter and Palfixed my attention ; and, though, at las the bods or buddhas of the Greeks. present, I can only offer desultory On the other hand, the name observations, on a subject with Muni signifies a “ prophet,” and which none, among us, I believe, is, besides, perhaps, to be identified are more than very imperfectly ac with the word moon. Muni, Menes, quainted, yet even those observa- Menu, Manes, &c. &c. have all tions, perhaps, may not be wholly the same original. The Buddha unacceptable.
of Bengal is said, by some wriBuddha, Buddhu, Buddho, Gaud- ters, to be called Maha Muni in Tima, Shaka Godama, Somono and bet; according to others, he is the Samono Codam, Godam, Gaud- Maha Deva, or Maha Deo of the ma or Godma, Maha Muni, San- Hindus. I know that I have against gal Muni, Shigi Muni, Shekia, Shac- me, as to my interpretation of the tsha-Tuba, Fo, and, as I believe, names of Menes and Menu, the exWoden, Odin, &c. are all names by press authority of Sir William Jones; which, in different languages and who, in the preface to his translation dialects, is or has been intended of the Institutes of that Indian
sage, the same person. The respective takes occasion to say, that “ the affinities observable between them, word Menu has no relation whatreadily point them out as divisible ever to the moon;" and that the forinto two classes, the one, I think, mer“ is clearly derived (like menes, consisting in common, and the other mens, and mind) from the root men, in proper names.
to understand." My suspicion is, Buddha I regard as a common that men itself has a relationship name, and as no other than a dia- with moon. lectical variation of the English The names Shaka, Shigi, Shekia,
Sangal, Somono, Samono, are like and the history, doctrine and prace wise allied between themselves, and tical influence of the institutions constitute titles or additions of which are known under his name : honour. In Nepal, Colonel Kirke always reserving, however, the patrick found Maha Muni, Maha point, whether the name of BudDeo, or Buddha, under the name dha, is not as universal in its huof Sumbo or Sambo Nath ; that is, man, as in its divine application; the Lord Sam Bo. Is he not also whether it is not applied by every the Shigi, Shaga, Shuga, Jaga, or people, to whose language it apperJuga Nath of the Hindoos ? In- tains, to any and to all teachers, cluding the name of Fo, Bo, Vo prophets, spirits or gods; and, conor Wo, we thus possess a part (and sequently, whether we are to exa part only) of the names under pect any bond of unity between the which the divinity is mentioned, several local systems which have from Japan, China, and Cochin the common denomination of BudChina, to Tibet and Ceylon. dhism. Such an unity is, I believe,
But, writers are agreed, that we under many aspects, to be found ; are to distinguish two Buddhas, but, on the one hand, it must not the one divine, the other human ; content us to find it in the name; the one existing before the world, and on the other, the diversity of the other appearing in it at some re name is no proof of its absence. cent date. The case is, that the Passing from the name, we may one Buddha is a god, the creator ; ask for the origin of Buddhism ; the other Buddha is a god, a divi- for the country in which Budda the nity, an inspired or divine person, prophet was born, or in which he a prophet, a spirit. It would be taught his system. On this head, easy to show, that this common use there are a variety of statements ; of the word god is found among the honour of giving him birth, or all nations. In reality, the word of first receiving his doctrine, is god, or good, is an epithet ; a claimed by various countries ; nor « god " is a “ good or beneficent ought we to be surprized if many, spirit." Thus, I could easily be nor if all, the countries in which lieve, that the history of Buddhism Buddhism is professed, are in the involves, not only that of two, but number of the claimants. Such a of many personages so denominat- fact, if it does not lead to a suspied. Every divine teacher, every cion that each country has had prophet, every inspired person, is, a Buddha of its own, is evidence in the language of his pious follow of the high antiquity of the one ers, a spirit, a supernatural being, a Buddha the prophet, whose system, good, a beneficent spirit; a god, being carried from country to counbod, or buddha.
try, at very remote periods, had - Leaving, here, the question, what come to be believed the original may be the doctrine of the Buddhists, production of each. or of any sect of Buddhists, con Of the uniformity of the basis of cerning Buddha the creator and go- Buddhism, there is, nevertheless, vernor of the world, our whole at some proof, in the uniformity of tention will be given to the human the images under wbich, in India, history of Buddha the prophet and Buddha is represented to his wormediator, his history and doctrine; shippers; and to one and all those
images there belongs a peculiarity legislator, who, giving laws to a peowhich cannot fail to strike the ate ple addicted to murderous rites, tention of the observer, while he is like those of Mexico and the Druids, inquiring for its country. This is, took this ingenious and amiable that Buddah is constantly represen- method of substituting, while he ted with woolly bair. His follow- amused their senses, and satisfied ers reject positively an African ori- their superstition, an inoffensive gin, and endeavour to account for practice. But was this the most an, this appearance of the head of
cient of the human Buddhas, or one Buddha, by referring it to an inci- of comparatively modern date? If dent in his life: “ His hair," say Budba be the Jaga Nath of the they, “ was originally long, like Hindoos, the bloodshed at the Rutt that of other Indians; but, being Jatra, (the feast of his procession,) is cut off, on a certain occasion, with grievously against the spirit of his a golden sword, it afterward as- laws; at least, if that Buddha be also sumed the appearance represented the Buddha “ the most merciful.” in the sculpture.” Whether the To conclude, if the conjecture chisel, nevertheless, does not speak be right, that the Odin of the north more truth than the fable, may
still of Europe is also the Buddha of admit a doubt.
Asia, then, singular as is the coinI propose to trouble you, Mr. Edi- cidence, in protecting the religion tor, with two or three additional let of Buddha in Ceylon, we are but ters, on this ancient and wide-spread protecting the religion of our ancesreligion, and which divides, with tors. “ I grant,” says the Earl of that of Brahma, the religious empire of India and the adjacent coun “ I grant, that from some mossy idol oak, tries, and shall, therefore, draw “ In doublerhimes, our Thor and Woden the present to a close; adding little spoke.” beside an observation, that the vir
But our Woden was not the tues of the system appear to be
most merciful;” or, at least, the corgentleness and compassion, and the relative worship of Thor was sufvices, rather melancholy and indo- ficiently bloody; and, hence, a lence, than ferocious or sanguinary further ground for believing, that dispositions. Buddha is often ex the Indian Buddha, born in a softer tolled as the “ most merciful ;” and climate, and in a less barbarous age, it is somewhere said, that, “ he was the reformer of the Buddhism condemned the whole Veda," be of more remote antiquity. “ The cause of some of the bloody of gods," say the Buddhists of Birma, ferings prescribed in the institutes “who have attained the perfect state, of Brahma, The harmless sacrifices are four ; Chauchasam, Gonagom, of the Chinese, which consist in Gaspa, and Godama (Buddha), but, burning coloured and gilded and of these, the law of Godama ought, tinned paper, are obviously Budd at present, to be followed.” In these hist ; since Buddha ordained paper words, we receive a hint of four figures of men and animals to be successive Buddhas, divine law. burnt, instead of the living victims givers, the authors of new dispensathemselves. In this, we have evi tions, each adapted to the time at dently the footsteps of the most which it was promulgated.-I am, &c. merciful ;” of some great and good
DESCRIPTION OF THE VALLEY OF DOONA.*
(From Kirkpatrick's Nepaul) We were just an hour in ascend- being able to reach, far less to culing to the top of Doona-baisi tivate them. The grain raised in bill, from whence we had a de these situations is principally Towli lightful view of the valley below, and Ikáro; they are both species as well as a broken one of the of Ghya, or dry rice, the former snowy ranges of mountains before of wbich is reaped in the summer, us. The declivity to the northward and the other in the winter solstice. was in many places extremely steep, I am inclined to think that the road often lying along the edge Doona-baisi * lies nearly on the of the shoulder by which we de same level with Beem-phede, or scended, and which now and then perbaps a little lower. The Owl, sunk very abruptly. The distance
or low-country plague, prevails in by the road from the summit of the this valley with some force, between mountain to the bottom of Doona- the months of April and November, baisi, could not, I judge, be less which must be attributed to the than six miles, as I was two hours great height of the mountains enand twenty minutes in descending. closing it, as otherwise it might We passed in our descent two ham well be considered an elevated silets, situated on small flat projec- tuation, standing as it does more tions from the side of the hill; the than fifteen hundred feet above the first of them nearly midway down, level of Cheeriaghati. During this the other about balf a mile from the period, the inbabitants fly to the bottom. The village of Pisan-keel sides of the surrounding hills, upon stands on the face of a detached which they all have cottages to rebill less than a quarter of a mile tire to. They nevertheless, confrom the foot of the descent into tinue, even during the bad season, the valley, and leaning from it to visit the valley without fear, about south-west. The north side while the sun remains above the of Doona-baisi mountain, though horizon, never venturing, however, of a perpendicular height not less to pass the night below. This ena than twelve hundred yards, was demial disease, of which we have cultivated in some parts from its been accustomed to hear such exvery summit to its base, presenting aggerated accounts, though doubtto the view one of the most inter- lessly a very afflicting malady, apesting and picturesque sights that pears to be nothing more than the can be well imagined ; many of the jungle fever, so common in the fields, indeed, appeared to be so billy and woody districts of India, steep as to excite some degree of and differing in no respect from the wonder in us at the husbandman's Malaria of Switzerland, as de* The Valley of Doon or Doona is the
scribed by Coxe. scene of the death of the brave General Gillespie. See the Scottish song, under * The word Baisi or Biasi, wherever the head of POETRY, page 45. ED.
signifies a valley,