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to them, which they most assuredly will or any other business, from the want of not do. The determination of the Supra- them. This, however, is altogether, focargoes is said to be taken, and it is given reign to reason, as Ayen was not a servant, out to be, a suspension of all British trade, but if any thing, a spy.He is said to have until they receive instructions from India confessed his intimacy with the English, or England—the cotton-ships are to be and that he has, during the several consent to Europè forthwith, according to 'troversies between the Committee and report—but I cannot believe this, nor Mandarins, invariably advised the former will I, until I know that they have ac to be bold in their demands, and not to tually sailed.

fear the latter, as the trade and duties A reference to Pekin is talked of, and were great objects with them, and such ships are to be sent off to the Yellow river as they would not relinquish on any acimmediately—but how are they to get count—that they had only to be firm, there against an adverse monsoon, and and they were sure of carrying their point during stormy winter months against in all cases. the gales and cold that they will have to Sir George will probably get to Macao encounter in the high latitude into which the day after to-morrow; and I cannot they will be compelled to go ?

but believe that the Committee, when One of the complaints against the Chi- they come to think seriously and together, nese is, that they occasionally take away will resolve on renewing their tradeour servants; and the Committee say, that whether they do or not, however, the if they were to suffer the Mandarins to

propriety of their conduct will remain a punish Ayen on the ground of improper question, and the right of aliens to intercommunication with them, they would fere, and even oppose the progress of be constantly arresting servants on the justice and administration of laws of slightest pretext, and that very soon there the country in which they temporarily would be no carrying on the Company's reside, must be fully discussed.

For the Asiatic Journal.

BRITISH INDIAN BIOGRAPHY.

(No. I.)

WILLIAM ROXBURGH, M. D. William Roxburgh, Doctor of sent at an early age to the UniverPhysic, Fellow of the Royal and sity of Edinburgh, where he purLinnæan Societies, and late chief ued his studies with such uncombotanist to the Honourable East- mon success, as to attract the parIndia Company, was born at Ayr, ticular notice of the late Dr. Hope, in the county of Ayr, North Bri- then professor of botany. The tain, the 3d of June 1751, His University of Edinburgh possesses parents were engaged in agricultu- this advantage to medical students, ral pursuits, which probably gave that the professors make a point of the first impulse to the inquisitive conferring with their several pupils, mind of their eldest son, in his and ascertaining their several disearly attention to the productions positions and bent of mind. Young of nature. Manifesting a decided Roxburgh, in his occasional muspartiality for botanical research, ing3 through the walk of the botaand connecting with it a turn for nic garden, attracted the especial chemistry and pharmacy, be was attention of his professor ; and to

this circumstance it was chiefly In token of respect to his liberal owing, that, at his own desire, an patrons, Dr. Roxburgh, who had appointment was procured for him, recently been honoured with a dias assistant surgeon on the Ho. ploma of M.D. from his alma mater, nourable East-India Company's laid his collection of manuscripts Madras Establishment, with a view for the “ Coromandel Plants” beto his prosecuting the unbounded fore the Court, who were pleased and hitherto unexplored field of to consult that great naturalist, Sir oriental botany,

Joseph Banks, under whose advice juvat intactos accedere fontes

and direction the work was pubAtque haurire, juvatque novos decerpere lished. The limits of this memoir flores.

do not allow of our entering into After a few years devoted to the

a detail of the merits of this great duties of his profession, as surgeon undertaking, it being no less than to a regiment, the value of his oc a description and classification, accasional researches in his predomi- cording to the Linnean system, of nant study was felt by the governo

all the most curious productions of ment of Fort St. George, and a the vegetable kingdom discovered botanic garden was instituted at during a residence of many years Samulcottah, under the immediate on the coast of Coromandel-suf. superintendence of Mr. Roxburgh, fice it to observe that its publicaaś botanist. In the formation of tion, to use the words of Sir Jo. this interesting establishment, he seph Banks,“ stamped the auwas assisted by the celebrated thor's character, as among the first Konig, who, dying shortly after, of botanists since the days of Linleft the whole of his valuable ma næus," Soon after this, Dr. Roxo nuscripts, bis Hortus Siccus, and burgh was elected a Fellow of the other rare collections, to his pupil, Royal and Linnean Societies, who had already well deserved through the introduction of Sir them by his extraordinary zeal, in- Joseph, and Dr. Smith, president defatigable ardour, and the remark- of the Linnæan Society. able discrimination of his judg In 1805, he returned to Engment. It was during his stay at land, for the benefit of bis health, this garden, that Mr. Roxburgh which had been greatly impaired arranged his intended publication of by constant study, and by long “ Coromandel Plants," formed dur- pedestrian wanderings under a hot ing his residence on the coast; and, sun, in search of curious and useful here, bis high reputation being plants. On more than one occaduly appreciated by the Court of sion he was known to have wanDirectors at home, he was trans- dered forty miles in a morning, ferred to the superintendence of over the immense mountains at the the Calcutta Botanic Garden, with Cape of Good Hope ; at another the appointment of Chief Botanist time, while being conveyed in his to the Honourable Company, which palanquin between Calcutta and was announced to bim in a most Madras, in the midst of one of the flattering letter, fixing him in the extensive forests that overhang eharge of that department, with a each side of the road, he suddenly very munificent allowance.

leaped from it, to the utter asto

nishment of the bearers, ran to the Society for the Encouragement of spot where he had marked a parti- Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, cular plant for which he had long in London, who elected him an searched in vain, and bore it back honorary corresponding member of in triumph, like the ancient philo- their society, and his several comsopher, who, having, after much munications upon the subjects of investigation, hit upon an impor- indigo, hemp, and other valuable tant discovery, exclaimed in the products of the East, repeatedly enthusiasm of the moment, evgixa, procured for him the gold medal ευρήκα, , « I have found it! I have voted at their annual meetings. found it !”

In May 1814, Dr, Roxburgh reTo those who contemplate the turned a second and last time to operations of mind, and feel an England. Although in

Although in a dying interest in tracing its phenomena, state, his natural energy did not as developed in the peaceful pur- forsake him ; but he was proceed. suits of science, these anecdotes ing in a new and most important will not appear futile. The day is work, to be termed “ the Flora at length arrived, when nations, Indica,” after the manner of Sir instead of applauding only the feats James Smith's “ Flora Græca," of arms, can listen to the still small being a record of all the plants voice of philosophy, which teaches reared in the Botanic Garden at men all that is useful, all that is Calcutta, as well as of such as had worthy of acquisition in civilized been discovered during his residence life,

in India, in addition to the Coro, Dr. Roxburgh was one of those mandel plants. The hand of death botanists who consulted more the arrested his progress in the 64th useful than the curious in botanical year of his age, and deprived the knowledge. He was impressed with world of a most scientific and zea, a lively sense of its importance to lous man, who would have adorned the healing art, and its subser even the chair of Linnæus, and vience to the grand objects of phar- have added new lights, had he macy and chemical analysis. Pro- lived, to European learning. bably his views in this particular We have dwelt thus much upon were formed by observation of the the merits of this eminent botanist, accurate knowledge of simples dis- not with a view to blazon forth the played in various cures by the na deeds of one who sought philosotive physicians, and their success- phy in retirement, but to render ful treatment ; but his own capa. his attainments familiar to the reacious and enlightened mind con der, Dr. Roxburgh was a man of templated a new field in sanative clear, distinguishing, powerful inphilosophy, and was filled with un- tellect, born with an uncommon bounded rapture in discovering a portion of native good sense, which world hitherto unexplored by natu- he improved by study and profound ralists, and promising the most be- reflection. His mind was of the neficial ends to medical science. purest scientific cast, and his loss His discovery of the Swietiana Fe- will be lamented by all those who brifuga, or anti-febrile bark, at- feel the value of great abilities de tracted the fayourable notice of the voted to useful purposes,

A DESCRIPTION OF THE TURRYANI OF NEPAUL.*

From Kirkpatrick's Account of Nepaul.

Hettowra, though standing very Goorkhalis, but the Turrye still be. little below the level of Cheeriaghati-longs to Hurry Kumar Seen, the top, is nevertheless comprehended ancient or former rightful Rajah of in the Turry or Turryani of Nepaul, Tannohi. as indeed is the whole of the coun Extensive as this government is, try situated to the southward of the Rajah of Nepaul does not draw Chusapany, and of the irregular any considerable revenue from it ; cluster of mountains stretching from this is partly owing to the numerous thence to the east and west, in a jaghire and brhemoter lands comnearly parallel elevation. Tarryani prehended in it; but more particuproperly signifies low or marshy larly, perhaps, to the low state of lands, and is sometimes applied to its population, and to mismanagethe flats lying below the hills in the

ment. It is pretended that the Ze. interior parts of Nepaul, as well as

mindars of Turrye hold their lands to the low tract bordering immedi

on very easy terms under the preately on the Company's northern

sent government, which is content frontier. The Turryani of Nepaul, to divide the produce of the soil confined between the Gunduck and equally with them. It is acknowTeesta, is divided into soubahs or

ledged, however, at the same time, governments ; that under Zorawar

that the Buttye is, in most cases, Sing, which stretches from the

no more than a nominal settlement, former of these rivers easterly to

as, besides the formal or established the Kousi, and which may be distinguished by the appellation of the cess, the Zemindar or cultivator is Western Turrye or Tarryani, con

obliged to pay occasionally, other sists of five zillahs, or districts, sub- form of fines, douceurs, and the like.

irregular and arbitrary taxes in the divided into twenty-seven pergan For lands recently brought into nahs. These zillahs are,

cultivation, the cultivator pays to 1. Subtuni, bounded to the east

government eight annas per biggah, ward by the Kousi.

the first year, and subsequently, 2. Mohtuni, west of Subtuni. 3. Rhohututt, or Rohtait, in it, three rupees the biggah.

whatever kind of grain he raises in

. which Huttioul is included; it is situated to the westward of Muhtuni.

The most that Zorawar (the go4. Bhâreh.

vernor of West Turrye) remits to 5. Persa, which extends to the Khatmanda annually is two lacks of westward as far as the Turryani of rupees; though his net receipts, Tannohi. The higher part, as well after discharging all expenses of as the fort of Tannohi, is in the collection, are supposed by some * Turyani, or Turye, also written

intelligent persons to amount to Terriani, Terriae, &c. The Turyani of

double this sum ; but whatever the of Nepaul is the low country to the north surplus may be, he does not enjoy of the hills.

ED, it exclusively, being obliged to di

vide his profits with the official men The Bechiacori pines, nevertheless, at Khatmanda, who would not ap seem to have never had an axe appear to be a whit less corrupt than plied to them, though they grow in their brethren of Hindostan. East" prodigious numbers, are very supeTurrye, though it is on the whole rior to what we generally met with a more fertile, or rather more po- in Nepaul proper, and, considering pulous, district, does not yield a net the vicinity of the Boora-Gunduck, revenue of more than from one lack might be conveyed to us both with and a quarter to one lack and a half little trouble, and at little expense, of rupees. It contains, however, compared to the channel by which more jaghire and brhemoter lands we are at present supplied with this than the other. The Moruny, useful article, and the cost at which which is comprehended in the East it is procured. Besides timber for Turrye (and of which it is indeed masts and yards, we could draw the most valuable part) is divided from hence whatever supplies of into two soubahs or governments pitch, tar, and turpentine we reby the Arun, which runs through quired. Kota, or pure turpentine the middle of it ; this river, though of the Sulla pine, may

of the Sulla pine, may be procured, it yields its name to the Kousi at I believe, even in Nepaul, at the Bundharia Ghaut, is, nevertheless, rate of ten seers per rupee, and a á much more considerable stream tree will yield, I have been told, than the latter, rising beyond for eight or ten years together, Himma-leb, and winding in a sin- about three maunds annually. Neigular manner through a great por.

ther the tar of America, nor the tion of Tibet, before it descends pine spars from thence, would apinto the Turryani.

pear to be in much estimation in If I might venture to form a India ; though, for want of better, I judgment from the superficial view suppose, we take off, it is said, from I had of West Turrye, I should be the American traders considerable inclined to pronounce that it is cae quantities of both at high prices. pable of being rendered highly pro

It is true that the nearest part of ductive to the Nepaul government;

the Boora-Gunduck is not less than its extensive forests alone contain thirty miles from the course of the an almost inexbaustible source of Bechiacori nulla ; but when we adriches, since they might be made to vert to the great number of streams supply with valuable timber, not

which intersect the intermediate only the countries washed by the country, some of them springing Ganges, but even our other settle even from the forest itself, the level ments in India. The pines of the of the country from Cheeriaghati Bechiacori, and the Saul-trees, both southerly, so favourable (on acof that and the Jhurjoory forest, count of its gentle declivity) to the are not perhaps surpassed in any opening of a communication beother part of the world, either for

pronounced of them that they promise to straightness or dimensions, or pro

prove both strong and lasting, and means bably for strength or durability.* to give them a trial in a ship which he is

about to launch. They had felled a couple * I had two cut down and floated from of immense dimensions in girth as well as Segouly to Calcutta, by way of sample; length, but were afterwards unable to one of these spars measured 76, the other move them. Those examined by Mr. 73 feet. Mr. Gillet the shipwright has Gillet will work about a foot in diameter.

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