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this chieftain, and the founder of the sketch than either my humble abilities or empire of Goa, are represented to have limited information enable me to contem. been great navigators and foreigners ; or, plate or embrace. The subject is so exaccording to the romance of native tradi- tensive, so new, so highly interesting, tion, deities sent from heaven to govern that I must claim your indulgence, if, in and take care of them. The inhabitants aiming at conciseness in representing the of Macassar have no idea by what means, appearances and facts which have most or at what period, the present form of forcibly struck my attention, many still government, of the nine Glarang, and more important particulars pass unno. the Bichara Buta of Goa, was estab- ticed. lished.
On the peculiar province of Dr. HorseLiterary compositions, in both the Ma- field, to whom I am indebted for whatecassar and Bugis languages, are numerous. ver information I possess on the natural They consist principally in historical ac- history of the island, I shall not further counts of the different states, since the trespass, than by adverting to the extenintroduction of Mahometanism, which is sive and almost endless variety which represented to have taken place so late as these regions present in every branch of the early part of the sixteenth century; his pursuits. One observation, however, and in galigas or collections of traditions, as connected with the earlier history of regarding more early times, of romances Java, in explaining the high fertility of its and poetical compositions, in which love, soil in comparison with that of the Mawar, and the chase, are the favourite
layan peninsula and Sumatra, may dethemes. They include a paraplıcase of serve notice in this place. From the rethe Koran, and several works, evidently sult of every investigation yet made, the translated from the Javanese and Arabic, geological constitution of Java appears to and many in common with the Malayu ; be exclusively volcanic, without any adalso works on judicial astrology, and mixture whatever of the primitive or secollections of institutions and cus- condary mountains of the Asiatic contitoms which have all the force of law; nent; while, on the contrary, Sumatra, and each principal state adopts the prac- with Banca, as before noticed, appear tice of duly recording every public event be a continuation and termination of the of importance, as it occurs.
immense chain of mountains which perJAVA*.
vades great part of Asia, and runs off I shall not longer detain you with no- finally in a direction north-west to southtices of our neighbours, while so wide east. Java deviates from the direction of and interesting a field attracts atten- Sumatra and the peninsula of Malacca, tion at home. In Java, and in that range in striking off directly west and east. In of islands which modern geographers this direction it is followed by the larger have classed under the denomination of
of the adjacent islands of Bali, Lombok, the Sunda Islands, I have hitherto re- Sumbawa, Endi, and Timor; and by many frained from noticing the extensive traces
smaller, which contribute to constitute of antiquity, foreign intercourse, and na- an extensive series. This direction, as tioual greatness, which are exhibited in
well as the constitution of all the islands the numerous monuments of a former
enumerated, indicates the existence of an worship, in the ruins of dilapidated ci- extensive volcanic chasm in this part of ties, and in the character, the instituti- the globe, running, for many degrees, ons, the language, and the literature of almost parallel with the equator. The the people, from the hope that abler pens consequences of Java's being exclusively would have attempted a more correct volcanic are, that while Sumatra abounds Jaya is washed on the south and east by the
in metals, Java, generally speaking, is Indian Ocean. To the north-west lies the island destitute of them ;* that, while in Sumaof Sumatra; to the north, Borneo, to the northcast, Celebes; and to the east it is separated by * All the indications yet discovered confirm the two narrow straits, from the islands of Madura assertion that the constitution of Java is unfa. and Bali. In length it may be estimated 'at six vourable to metals. The only notice as to the hundred miles, by ninety-five in average breadth. existence of gold or silver is contained in the first The arm of the sea, stretching between Java and · volume of the Transactions of the Society ; and Sumatra, is known by, the appellation of the the attempts on Gunung Parang in 1793, and on Straits of Sunda.-Edit.
the Magé Mendung in 1744, were soon abandoned.
tra there are many extensive tracts, ste- If, to the naturalist, Java exhibits these rile, and unfavourable to vegetation, Java, extensive and wonderful varieties, to the with few exceptions, is covered with a antiquary, the philologist and the phisoil in the highest degree fertile, luxuri- losopher, she offers, in like manner, subant, and productive of every species of jects of equal novelty, and even of higher vegetation.
interest; whether we investigate the splenReferring to the ample details of the did remains of her temples and lier cities, mineralogy of Java, which the scientificher languages and her literature ; or the and persevering ertions of Dr. Horsefield character, institutions and customs of her have enabled us to include in our present inhabitants. volume, I shall, on this branch of our To attempt any satisfactory description pursuits, only observe, that catalogues of the various monuments of antiquity, and collections of the varieties in the mi- and of a former worship, which are to be neral, vegetable, and animal kingdoms, as found in almost every district of the they have been found to exist on Java, island, would be impracticable on the have been formed by this gentleman, who present occasion ; and, with the exception is at present engaged in exploring the of a few notices, I must content myself districts lying to the east and south of with assuring you, that however deficient Suracarta, with the view of completing we may be in scientific information, or in materials for the natural history of Java. a knowledge of the mythology sacred to His Flora Javana is already far advanc- which these monuments may have been ed. The geography of plants is a subject reared, measures have been taken that a to which he has particularly directed his record, to be depended upon for exactresearches. From the extensive range of ness at least, should exist of the actual the thermometer between the high and remains of Hinduism in Java. I am inthe low lands, Java presents to the bo- debted to Captain Baker, who is now actanist, at the least, six distinct associati- tively engaged in these pursuits, for the ons of plants or floras, indigenous to as most accurate sketches of the present many climates, defined by their compa- appearance of the most important of rative elevation above the level of the these ruins, as well as for ground-plans sea. *
and elevations of the principal temples,
with notices of much valuable information Iron pyrites is found in small quantities in several
which is to be collected of their origin, districts, as well as red ochre, which, however, often contains so little iron as scarcely to serve object, and history. for the common purpose of a paint. The exist. You are aware that the most splendid ence of mercury in the low lands of Damak, where it is distributed in minute particles through Prambanan, Boro Bodo and Singa Sari.
of these monuments are to be found at the clay of the rice-grounds bounding one of the principal rivers in that district, cannot be con- Of the first an interesting description is sidered as an indication of a mine or ores of that
given in the last volume of our Transactimetal.
ons, by our highly esteemed friend, Colo* The height of the principal mountains in Java is estimated at from seven to eight thousand
nel Mackenzie. Circumstances have since feet above the level of the sea. Several of them admitted of a more minute investigation; have been ascended, and measures are now in and our information, as far as regards progress for ascertaining the elevation with some degree of accuracy. Lieut. Heyland, who has
their present state, is much more comseveral times ascended Sindoro, observes, " that plete. These extensive ruins lay claim on reaching the summit on the 20th May, 1813, to the highest antiquity; and, considering the sun had set, and the thermometer of Fahren
the vicinity of the temples to have been heit stood at 36. During the night, the thermometer varied between 36 and 44, and, as the day
the seat of the earliest monarchy in Java, broke on the morning of the 21st, it was at 36. A I may be permitted, in the words of Capsecond thermometer at 30. He immediately pro• tain Baker, to lament the contrast of the ceeded to the lake, and found it covered with ice of about double the thickness of two Spanish dol.
present times, with “ times long since lars. A piece of double this thickness, found past.” “Nothing,” he observes, “can exsome distance from the edge on the same lake, ceed the air of melancholy, desolation, and induced a belief that it had remained unthawed
ruin, which this spot presents; and the on the day preceding, and had now received the addition of a second night's frost. The water in On another excuision, in October, 1814, the ther. the soup-plates, which had been used as hot-water mometers fell to 36 and 38; and ice formed on plates the evening before, was completely frozen them after they had been immersed in water and through, and the ice the thickness of an inch." exposed to the air.
feelings of every visitor must be forcibly heathen. It is built so as to crown the in unison with the scene of surrounding upper part of a small hill, the suumit devastation, when he reflects upon the terminating in a dome. The building is origin of this once venerated, hallowed square, and is composed of seven terspot; the seat and proof of the perfection races rising one above the other, each of arts now no longer in existence in of which is enclosed by stone walls ; the Java; the type and emblem of a religion ascent to the different terraces being by no longer acknowledged, and scarcely four flights of steps, leading from four known among them by name : when he principal entrances, one on each side of retects upon that boundless profusion of the square. On the top are several small active, unwearied skill and patience, the latticed domes, the upper part terminatnoble spirit of generous emulation, the ing in one of a larger circumference. In patronage and encouragement which the separate niches, or rather temples, at arts and sciences must have received, and equal distances, formed in the walls of the the inexhaustible wealth and resources several terraces, are contained upward of which the Javanese of those times must three hundred stone images of devotees, have possessed !”
in a sitting posture, and being each above Iu attempting to describe the Chandi three feet high. Similar images are Sewo, or Thousand Temples, which form within the domes above ; and in comparta principal part of these ruins, he laments ments in the walls, both within and withhis inability to convey any adequate ideas, out, are carved in relief, and in the most satisfactory to his own mind, even of the correct and beautiful style, groupes of actual dismantled state of this splendid figures, containing historical scenes and seat of magnificence and of the arts.- mythological ceremonies, supposed to be " Never,” he abserves, “ have I met representations of a principal part, either with such stupendous, laborious and of the Ramayan or Mahabrat. The finished specimens of human labour, and figures and costume are evidently Indian; of the polished, refined taste of ages long and we are at a loss whether most to adsince forgot, and crowded together in so mire the extent and grandeur of the small a compass, as characterize and are whole construction, or the beauty, richmanifested in this little spot; and, though, ness and correctness of the sculpture. I doubt not, there are some remains of The name, and resemblance of the antiquity in other parts of the globe more images which surround this temple to worthy the eye the traveller, or the the figure of Budha, has induced an opipencil of the artist, yet Chandi Sewo nion that it was exclusively confined to must ever rank with the foremost in the the worship of that deity; but it should attractions of curiosity, or of antiquarian be noticed, that in the immediate vicinity research."
of this large temple, and evidently conI have preferred giving you the words nected with it, are the remains of several of Captain Baker, while the subject was smaller temples, constructed much after fully impressed on his mind, and while in the fashion of the temples at Prambanan, the midst of the objects which he con- and containing a variety of sculptures and templated :—there is a feeling excited at images of the Brahminical worship. A such a moment that gives a colouring to large but mutilated stone figure of Brahma the picture, and which is weakened in was found in a field hard by; and as there the faded tints of a more distant view. are images similarly resembling Budha to
Next to Prambanan, the ruins of Boro be found at Prambanan, it would seem, Bodo may be ranked as remarkable for that if they are ascertained to represent grandeur in design, peculiarity of style, that deity, these buildings must have been and exquisite workmanship. This tem- erected at a period when the worship was ple is in the district of Boro, under the pot separated. residency of the Kadu, whence I pre- Although the general design of this sume it takes its name ; Bodo being temple differs from those at Prambanan, either a term of contempt, cast upon it by a similar style of sculpture and decorathe Mahometans, or erroneously so pro- tion is observable; and the same, may nounced, instead of Buď ho—which, in be also traced in the ruins at Singa its general acceptation, in the Javanese Sari, situated in the Residency of Palanguage, is synonimous with ancient, or
saruan, where are still to be found
images of Brahma, Mahadewa, Ganesa, no less than twenty-nine points or sum, the Bull Nandi, and others, of the
he most mits
, which have distinct names,) situexquisite workmanship, and in a still ated on the northern side of the island, higher degree of preservation than any and inland between Samarang and Pacaremaining at Prambanan or Boro Bodo. longan, the supposed residence of Arjuno, One of the most extraordinary monu
and of the demi-gods and heroes who ments in this quarter, however, is an distinguished themselves in the B'rata immense colossal statue of a man resting Yud’ha, or Holy War. Here, the ruins on his hams, of the same character as of the supposed palace of the chief-the the porters" at Prambanan, lying on its
abode of Bima, his followers and attend face, and adjacent to a terrace, on which
ants, are exhibited, and so rich was once it was originally placed. This statue mea
this spot, in relics of antiquity, that the sures in length about twelve feet, breadth village of Kali Babar, situated at the foot between the shoulders nine feet and a of the mountain, is stated to have paid half, and at the base nine feet and a half, its rents, from time immemorial, in gold with corresponding dimensions in girth, melted down from the golden images here cut from one solid stone. The statue
discovered. So great, indeed, has been the seems evidently to have fallen from the desire to meet the courtly thirst for these adjacent elevated terrace; although it is
interesting relics, that, I regret to say, difficult to reconcile the probability of its
many of the buildings, composed of a man having been elevated to such a station,
teriál less in demand, have suffered prewith reference to any traces we now have
mature dilapidation on this account. Sem of the knowledge of mechanics by the veral interesting remains have recently Javanese. To have raised it by dint of
been discovered by Major Johnson, resimere manual labour would appear, at the
dent at the Court of the Susunan; and, present day, an Herculean task. The among these, the ruins at Suku deserve terrace is about eighteen feet high. A particular notice. But I have already second figure, of the same dimensions, trespassed on a subject which it is imhas since been discovered in the vicinity possible to treat well, except in detail, of the above; and, when the forest shall and with reference to drawings of the exbe cleared, some traces of the large temple tensive variety of erections, edifices, imato which they formed the approach may
ges, and poetical creations, which abound probably be found. Not far from Singa in Java. Sari, which was once the seat of empire, As connected with these early and and in the district of Malang, are several splendid monuments of the former high interesting ruins of temples, of similar state of the arts in Java, and illustrative construction, and of the same style of of the history of the country, are to be orvament.
noticed the great variety of inscriptions These buildings must have been raised found in different parts of the island. at a period when the highest state of the Fac-similies of most of these have been arts existed, and constructed at no very taken ; and I am happy to add, that we distant date from each other. Consider- have succeeded in decyphering some of ed in this view, they serve very forcibly the most interesting. The character on and decidedly to corroborate the histo- the stone found at Prambanan is no doubt rical 'details of the country, which are one of the Dewa Nagri characters of In found to exist in the different written dia ; and, with the exception of a few compositions and dramatic entertain- characters discovered at Singa Sari, on ments.
the backs of stone images, the only speciIn noticing the more prominent remains men yet discovered of this peculiar forof antiquity, as they are to be traced mation, from the architecture and sculpture of From the vicinity of the former kingformer days, I should be wanting in at- dom of Jong'golo, uot far distant from tention, and indeed in a due respect to the modern Surabaia, have been brought the popular tradition and the still receiv- several large stones, of the shape of Enge ed opinion of the Javans, did I'not speak lish tombstones, covered with inseripof Gunung Prahu, a mountain, or ra- tions in the ancient Javanese character, ther a range of mountains, (for there are and in the Kawi language, translations'
(or rather paraphrases, for they princi- language, at the least, may be considered pally contain prayers and invocations to to be the same as the Javanese; another the Deity, in a lauguage the meaning of a fourth is perhaps original; and the refew words only of whiclí are retained, maining half Malayan. At what period while the idiom and grammatical con- this extensive portion of the Jlalayan was struktion has long been lost,) have been adopted, or whether any part or the made, and will be found in the pages of whole of this portion may not originally our Transactions. It has fallen to my lot have formed the common language of to succeed, not only in decyphering the this part of the country, is yet to be deMSS recently discovered in Cheribon, but cided. In the Javanese, or language of also the inscriptions on the copper plates the eastern division of the island, and so long deposited among the records of also of the lower parts of Bantam and our society as unintelligible ; the results Cheribon, the natural or vernacular lanwill be communicated to the society in guage in like manner contains a consianother form, and the subject will be derable number of words in common with more particularly adverted to,when speak- the Malayan, and the general principles ing of the languages and literature. of construction'are found to have a stri
These inscriptions, which, in general, king accordance. We thus find strong contain dates, are of the first importance proofs in support of one common origin in enabling us to trace the source whence of the prevailing languages of the Archithe language and literature may have pelago, notwithstanding that a large pordowed, and to satisfy our minds of the tion of the Malayan words now used prevailing worship at any particular pe- in Java may be ascertained to have been riod. It is only by an assemblage of as received at a comparatively recent date, inany data as can be collected, from this and in the course of long and continued source, from the remains of the arts, intercourse with the neighbouring counfrom the language, literature, and insti- tries. tutions of the people of the present day, The Javanese language, properly so compared with the best information we called, is distinguished by a division becan procure of other countries of the tween what may he considered as the East, which may have been civilized at vernacular language of the country, used an earlier period, that we can come at by the common people among themselves, any fair and just result. The question is and which is adopted when addressing an too extensive, too important to be lightly inferior, and what may be considered as treated, or to be decided upon from any a second or court language, adopted by pre-conceived opinion or partial views. all inferiors when addressing a superior.
Did not other striking and obvious The same construction, as well as the proofs exist of the claims of Java to be idiom of the language, is, I believe, considered at one period far advanced in pretty generally preserved in both the civilization, it might be sufficient to bring languages; the latter, however, consists forward the perfection of the language, of a more extensive class of foreign words the accession which that language must which would appear to have been picked in early times have received from a dis- and culled for the purpose. Where diftant but highly cultivated source, and the ferent words have not been found from copiousness for which it stands so pecu- the common language of the country, an liarly and justly distinguished.
arbitrary variation in the sound of the In the island of Java, two general lan- word belonging to the common language guages may be considered as prevalent. is adopted, as in changig the word progo The Sunda language, which prevails in into pragi, dadi into dados, Jawa into the western, and the Javanese, which is Jawi, &c. and, the more effectually to the language of the districts east of Che- render the polite language distinct, not ribon. The first is a simple dialect ac- only are the affirmatives and negatives, commodated to all the purposes of the as well as the pronouns and prepositions mountainous classes who speak it, and varied, but the auxiliary verbs and parperhaps differs from the Javanese, not so ticles are in general different. much in its construction, as in the por- So effectually, indeed, does this arbition of original and of Malayan words trary distinction prevail, that in the wbich it contains. One-fourth of the most common occurrences and expresAsiatic Journ.No. IV.
Vol. I. 2 Z