Sivut kuvina
PDF
ePub

would say

sions, the language that would be used cient, and which is decyphered from in-
by a superior bears not the slightest re scriptions on stone and copper-plates, is
semblance to what, with the same object, almost pure Sanscrit. The construction
would be used by an inferior. Thus when and idiom in these inscriptions is no
a superior would say to an inferior “You longer comprehended by the Javanese,
have been sick a very long time” he and there are but few whose intellige ice,
would in the common or vernacular lan and acquaintance with the terms used,
guage use the words “ Lawas teman goni enables them to give even a faint notion
loro", while an inferior, using the court of their meaning. Examples of these
language would to the same purport, say languages, taken from the B'rata Yudha,
Lami leras genipun sakit.If the and from some of the inscriptions allnded
former would ask the question “ is your to, will appear in the new volume of our
child a boy or a girl ?” he would use the Transacīions.
words, Anak kiro wadon opo lanang ?To facilitate the acquirement of a lan-
but the latter would express himself,

guage in its nature so extensive and va-
Putro hijang'an diko, estri punopo ?' ried as that of the Javanese, a method
Again, would the former observe “ That is adopted similar to what I understand-
the people of Java, both men and women, is known in India, of classing the sy-
like to preserve the hair of the head,” he

nonyms in such a manner as to connect Wongpulu Jawa lanang

them in the memory, by stringing them wadon podo ng'ing'u rambut ;" while the

in classes, according to the natural chain latter would use the words, « Tetiang

of our ideas; the collection or vocabulary heng nusa Jawi estri jalar sami ng ing a so composed is termed doso nomo, literally remo, &c.”

ten names, and in point of fact there are It is not, however, to be supposed that but few words in the language which these languages are so separated that the have not at least so many synonyms.one is studied and attained exclusively of An example of this mode of instruction the other; for, while one is the language and of assisting the memory is also inof address, the other must be that of re cluded in our volume as illustrative, not ply; and the knowledge of both is indis- only of the method alluded to, but the pensible to those who have occasion to

great delicacy and variety of the lancommunicate with persons of a different guage. rank from themselves. In the polite lau I am happy to report that very extenguage, Kawi words are frequently intro sive vocabularies, not only of both diduced by the party, either to show his visions of the Javanese, including the reading, or evince a higher mark of re

Kawi, but of the Sunda, and of the diaspect. The Kawi however, is, more pro lects of Madura and Bali, with notices perly a dead language, the language of of the varieties in particular districts and literary compositions of the higher class;

mountain-tribes, have been collected and and is, to the Javanese, what the Sans that whenever our more intimate accrit is to the languages of Hindnstan, quaintance with the written compositions and the Pali to the Birman and Siamese :

of the country may afford the test of how far it may assimilate to either, must

some experience in aid of what has alremain to be decided by more accurate ready been done, the grand work of a comparison and observation, than we

grammar and dictionary may be accomhave yet had opportunity to make. It is plished. This has long been our first and in this language that the more ancient

grand desideratum.* and celebrated of the literary perform In both the Sunda and Javanese lanances of the country are written'; and it

guages the same written character is in is probable th:t it will be found, that

use; and it has 110t yet been traced whewhite the general language of Java pos ther the former ever had a separate writ

sesses, 'in common with all the more cul"tivated languages of the archipelago, a

* Considerable progress has been made since vi considerable portion of Sanscrit terms,

our last meeting in the acquirement of the Ja.

vanese language. The Rev. Mr. Trout, in parthe court-language is still more replete ticular, is prosecuting his studies at Samarang with them; and that the Kawi, and par

with great success, and arrangements are in proticularly that which is reckoned most an

gress for procuring from Bengal a fount of Java

1

nese types.

nese.

ten character or not; at a place, however, mature to form any judgment on their recalled Batu Tulis, on the site of the an lative excellence. The B’rata Yud'ha is cient capital of Pajajaran, is preserved an contained in about two hundred verses ; inscription on stone in very rude charac- but, in rendering the Kawi into Javanese, ters; and several similar inscriptions in it is found necessary, in order to convey the same character have been recently dis- any thing like the meaning, to render one covered at Kwali in Cheribon, where line of Kawi into at least three of the mosome of the descendants of the princes of dern Javanese. I should not omit to Pajajaran took refuge. This character, mention that the belief is general among till lately appeared widely different from the Javanese, that the scene of this celeany other yet noticed in Java, but is now brated romance is on Java. They point found to contain some of the letters and out the different countries which are revowel marks in common with the Java- ferred to, such as Hastina, Wirata, and

The date inscribed on the stone at others in different districts of the island, Batu Tulis has fortunately been decypher- which have since assumed more modern ed, and the character was doubtlessly names; and the supposed mansion of Arused by the Sunda people at the period of juno, as before noticed, is still traced the destruction of the western government upon Gunung Prahu, of Pajajaran.

These works, in common with almost No less than seven different characters every composition in the language, are are represented to have been in use at composed in regularly measured verses ; different periods of Javanese history; and and, as far as we can judge, from the although those at present adopted appear partial translations which have been made at first sight to be very different from the from them, through the medium of the more ancient, yet, on examination, the Javanese, they do credit to the power of one may without much dificulty be traced the language and the genius of the poet. to the other, by observing the gradual al Historical compositions are divided into terations made from time to time. Spe two general classes, termed Pakam and cimens of these different characters, with Babat ; under the former are considered the periods in which they were respective the Romo and B’rata Yud'ha; the instily used, are submitted to the inspection tutions and regulations for princes and of the Society; and I regret that the ab the officers of state and law, entitled sence of an engraver precludes them from Kopo Kopo, Jogol Muda and Kontoro; appearing in the volume of our trans works on astronomy and judicial astroloactions.

gy, termed Wuku; and works on moral The literature of Java, however much conduct, regulations and ancient instituit may have declined in latter days, must

tions, termed Niti Sastro and Niti Projo. be still considered as respectable. The

Under the Babat are classed chronologimore ancient historical compositions are

cal, and other works on modern history, mostly written in the Kawi language, to

since the establishment of the empire of

Mataram. which frequently the meaning of each word, and a paraphrase of the whole in

There are in use, for ordinary and poJavanese, is annexed. Of these compo- 'pular compositions, five different kinds of sitions those most highly esteemed are

regular measured stanzas, termed Temthe B'rata Yud’ha or Holy War, and a

bang, adapted to the subject treated of, volume entitled Romo or Rama, the for

whether heroic, amorous, or otherwise ; mer descriptive of the exploits of Arjuno,

these are termed Asmoron Dono, Danand the principal heroes whose fame is dang Gula, Sinom, Durmo and Pankgur. recorded in the celebrated Indian poem of In the higher compositions, and particuthe Mahabarat, the latter of those who ,larly in the Kawi, these measures are are distinguished in the Ramayan. These still more varied, and in number upward poems are held by the Javanese of the of twenty, twelve of which correspond in present day in about the same estimation name with the stanzas used in the poetry as the Iliad and Odyssey of Homer are by of continental India. Europeans. Until translations are made, In repeating these compositions, they and can be compared with the more ex are chaunted, or rather drawled out, in tensive works in India, it would be pre- regular metre, according to rules laid

burst from his heart. This was too rature, and all the arts and sciences much even for the stoicism of the uncle, which tend to the refinement of human who then pressed him affectionately to life; as well as her stouter nerve, and his bosom, and exclaiming, “'tis my loftier courage, evinced in many splendid brother's child," bursts into tears himself. and glorious conquests : yet I am inclined I do not remember that I was ever more to believe, that the consequences of this sensibly affected.

superiority, the long train of multiplied If it is not then to the structure of wants, increasing luxury, vicious habits, their language, nor to the refinements of political corruption, religious scepticism, education, that this del cacy of ideas &c. &c. are not quite counterbalances to and language is to be ascribed, may we that moderate state of happiness, which not suppose that the genial warmth of a people who are far advanced in all the the climate, and universal luxuriance of arts of civilization, yet still remain sume nature, unite to produee a physical ten- steps below perfection, may be supposed derness and susceptibility in the various to possess : an happiness less brilliant organs of sense, and thus render the and less glorious perhaps, but at the nerves on which they act, more

“ trem

same time more tranquil and diffused, on blingly alive all o'er," than our hardier and less liable to be overthrown. Such a and more rigid climate?

state of public happiness I imagine the I am aware that these opinions of the Hindoos to have enjoyed under the goHindoos will find but little credit with the vernment of their ancient princes. The generality of my countrymen in India; laws of Brimha, believed to be of divine who will be apt to regard them as the vi- origin, were obeyed without cavils or sionary offspring of prejudice and ro murmurs ; and though like all other pro. mance. With them there are but two, ductions of human understanding, they though very distinct, opinions upon this doubtless contain many imperfections and subject ; one party regarding the inhabi errors ; they may nevertheless boldly tants, manners, productions, &c. of In- challenge the praise of great wisdom : dia, when compared with those of Eu- and the merit of being admirably adapted rope, as utterly unworthy of notice; to the genius of the people for whose while their opponents, fewer indeed in guidance they were intended, and the numbers, but equally strong in argument, climate in which they were to be exergive to every thing in the East a prefer- rised. By what has been termed “the ence, as decided and probably as unjust. unnatural division of the people into To profess impartiality, and to be only castes,” they at least put a powerful laughed at for the profession, is so com check upon domestic ambition ;, with the mon, that however sincerely I may be crimes and miseries which too often atlieve myself endued with so rare a qua- tend upon that unruly passion : while we lity, I should get but little credit by have ample proof that emulation was not avowing it. Let me therefore endeavour extinguished in the honours which we to secure the favour at least of one of know were paid to men distinguished in the contending parties, by avowing a any branch of science, and the beautiful predilection for the simple character and specimens of art and manufacture, which manners of the unsophisticated Hindoo. are still to be found in every part of this I can admire the superior genius of Eu immense empire. rope displayed in laws, commerce, lite

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

POETRY.

DIRGE
On the Death of the Poet

HAFIZ. (a)
In those fam'd bow'rs let fancy stray,
Of Shiraz and of Mosellay,

(a) This dirge supposes the European reader already acquainted with some of the celebrated

Where Hafiz once in vernal grove
Pour'd forth his minstrel strains of love,
poems of Hafiz, that have been versified in our
lang lage by Sir William Jones, Nott, Hindley,
and others, more especially with the Gazel of the
"Maid of Shiraz,” that of the Belle Idol,” and
that of “ Ask me not,&c. &c. all or most of
which may be found in Hindley's versions, as well
as some interesting particulars in the introduc-

streams; to weave chaplets of the Lotus, Oude?

attractions of the Persian beauty. With once heard a young Brahmun, about fifa the one we sigh to repose among shady teen years of age, who had not quitted bowers, or wander by the side of cooling his native village, in a distant part of

above four months, interrogated. or the jessamine for her hair ; and even by another, why he was so late in returnfancy ourselves enamoured of one of the ing to camp? He had been at, a Mela or; legitimate shepherdesses of our pastoral fair, held in the neighbourhood of Gwa. poetry. With the other, we burn to liur,' at which all the women of the city, share the luxurious pleasures of the ban young as well as oid, appeared without quet ; to celebrate her eyes in anacreon reserve : and when he heard the, questiç measures; or toast her jetty ringlets tion, “Oh!" cried he, in his Doric tongue, in bowls of liquid ruby. Our heated while an expression of pleasure sparkled imagination pourtrays a Puryne or a in his fine hazel eyes, "Buhar ko lootut Lais, and we picture to ourselves the ruha," " I've been plundering the wanton attractions of a Grecian or Ro- spring !" Another time, when I had remau courtezan. Love is equally the rul- primanded a lad, about the same age, for, ing passion of both, but it is of different calling a respectable elderly man old, who kinds ; that of the Hindoo is evident, was very ambitious of appearing young, yet tender; that of the Persian volup Why,” said he,“ his whiskers are like tuous and intoxicating. No is the charac- peoore” – threads of fresh spun cotton. ter of their lovers less distinctly marked; May I venture upon another instance? it the passion of the Hindoo youth is relates to my young favourite whọ breathed for his mistress only; while plundered the spring ;" and will serve that of the Persian is equally excited by to show, that these, interesting people wine and music, by roses and nightin are not merely metaphorical, but actually gales, as by all the blandishments of his possessed of the most tender and amiable sugar'd” charmer.

feelings. His uncle, at whose request he If we were to indulge our fancy in pour- had been brought to camp, was a Sipahee traying the characters of the ancient of some standing in the corps I commandHindoos froin these specimens of their ed, but notorious for using, upon every popular poetry, how amiable would they occasion, the grossest abuse : an insult appear! Gentle, simple in their manners, offensive beyond any other, to all ranks alive to strong impressions; and pecu of Hindoos. The boy had long submitted liarly susceptible of the tender passion. in silence to this, and other harsh treatAnd if due allowance be made for the ment of his relation ; till, at length, upon difference between poetical delineation, the representation of a native officer, I and the fainter lines of real life, I do directed that he should be removed to not know that the picture would be so another company, and not allowed to ashighly coloured as not to bear some re sociate with him upon any account semblance to their descendants of the arrangement at which the other affected present day; especially when unsophis to be exceedingly offended. Soon after, ticated by an admixture of foreign man the uncle received a wound which incaners. They still speak the language of pacitated him for service; and he was poetry and love, though expressed in a transferred to the invalid establishment. dialect that is perfectly rustic. To what Previous however to his quitting camp, is this to be ascribed ? Not to the peculiar the lad came to me and entreated me to structure of the language itself, for it use my influence to reconcile him to his consists mostly of short expressive words uncle ; and that they might not part in composed of consonants; and abounds anger. I sent for him directly; and more in monosyllables, with the excep- upon his entering the tent, Arjoon, the tion perhaps of the Chinese, than any boy's name, fell at his feet. The uncle, language with which I am acquainted. however, remained for some moments Neither can it be attributed to the polish sullen and unmoved; till at length, upon of education or society; for I have ģene- my upbraiding him for his harshness; and rally observed, that those Hindoos ex insensibility, he put his hand gently upon press themselves most elegantly and me the hoy's head ; who, when he felt this taphorically, who are born in villages littlc act of kindness, sprang up, threw most remote from large towns, and the his arms around his neck, and gave vent resorts of Europeans or Moosulmuns. I to his feelings in sobs, that seemed to

an

more

burst from his heart. This was too rature, and all the arts and sciences much even for the stoicism of the uncle, which tend to the refinement of human who then pressed him affectionately to life; as well as her stouter nerve, and his bosom, and exclaiming, “'tis my loftier courage, evinced in many splendid brother's child," bursts into tears himself. and glorious conquests : yet I am inclined I do not remember that I was ever more to believe, that the consequences of this sensibly affected.

superiority, the long train of multiplied If it is not then to the structure of wants, increasing luxury, vicious habits, their language, nor to the refinements of political corruption, religious scepticism, education, that this del cacy of ideas &c. &c. are not quite counterbalances to and language is to be ascribed, may we that moderate state of happiness, which not suppose that the genial warmth of a people who are far advanced in all the the climate, and universal luxuriance of arts of civilization, yet still remain sume nature, unite to produee a physical ten- steps below perfection, may be supposed derness and susceptibility in the various to possess : an happiness less brilliant organs of sense, and thus render the and less glorious perhaps, but at the nerves on which they act,

trem same time more tranquil aud diffused, ost:, blingly alive all o'er,” than our hardier and less liable to be overthrown. Such a and more rigid climate?

state of public happiness I imagine the I am aware that these opinions of the Hindoos to have enjoyed under the goHindoos will find but little credit with the vernment of their ancient princes. The generality of my countrymen in India ; laws of Brimha, believed to be of divine who will be apt to regard them as the vi origin, were obeyed without cavils or sionary offspring of prejudice and ro murmurs; and though like all other pro. mance. With them there are but two, ductions of hunan understanding, they though very distinct, opinions upon this doubtless contain many imperfections and subject ; one party regarding the inhabi errors ; they may nevertheless boldly tants, manners, productions, &c. of In challenge the praise of great wisdom : dia, when compared with those of Eu and the merit of being admirably adapted rope, as utterly unworthy of notice; to the genius of the people for whosewhile their opponents, fewer indeed in guidance they were intended, and the numbers, but equally strong in argument, climate in which they were to be exergive to every thing in the East a prefer rised. By what has been termed “ the ence, as decided and probably as unjust. unnatural division of the people into To profess impartiality, and to be only castes,” they at least put a powerful laughed at for the profession, is so com check upon domestic ambition; with the mon, that however sincerely I may be crimes and miseries which too often atlieve myself endued with so rare a qua tend upon that unruly passion : while we lity, I should get but little credit by have ample proof that emulation was not avowing it. Let me therefore endeavour extinguished in the honours which we to secure the favour at least of one of know were paid to men distinguished in the contending parties, by avowing a any branch of science, and the beautiful predilection for the simple character and specimens of art and manufacture, which manners of the unsophisticated Hindoo. are still to be found in every part of this I can admire the superior genius of Eu immense empire. rope displayed in laws, commerce, live

POETRY.

DIRGE
· On the Death of the Poet

HAFIZ. (a)
In those fam'd bow'rs let fancy stray,
Of Shiraz and of Mosellay,

(a) This dirge supposes the European reader already acquainted with some of the celebrated

Where Hafiz once in vernal grove
Pour'd forth his minstrel strains of love,
poems of Hafiz, that have been versified in our
langage by Sir William Jones, Nott, Hindley,
and others, more especially with the Gazel of the
Maid of Shiraz," that of the “ Belle Idol," and
that of “ Ask me not,&c. &c. all or most of
which may be found in Hindley's versions, as well
as some interesting particulars in the introduce

« EdellinenJatka »