« EdellinenJatka »
are included iu the above list, an average of dred, of whom about one hundred are four to a family way be fairly taken, giving termed Pandita. a total population for the whole island ex Without entering into the particular cceding eight hundred thousand souls. tenets of the prevailing Hinduism of Bali, **The form of government, institutions which can only be treated of with propriand prevailing habits, are represented to ety and correctness after a more thorough be the same throughout the island; and acquaintance with the practical duties, and the following sketch of B'liling may af some knowledge of what is contained in ford a just notion of the whole.
their sacred records, it may be affirmed The government is despotic, and vested without hazard, that Hinduism, as it exin the prince alone, who is assisted in ists at the present day in Bali, is rather to all affairs relating to the internal adminis- be considered as the nationalized Hindutration of the country, by a head Perbakal, ism of Bali, in which a large portion of the (immediately under officers of this name, native institutions and customs are ad are placed the heads of villages,) and by mitted, thạn Hinduism as-it is understood a Radin Tumung-gung, who conducts the to prevail on the continent of India. The details of a more general pature, of com- Brahmins, however, are held in high remerce and foreign intercourse. The con- neration; and, on being questioned as to stitution of each village is the same; the their doctrines and to what sect they head or chief is termed Perbakal, and belong, they answer invariably, they are -the assistant, Kalian Tempek. These Bramana Siwa. They have the same apOfficers are invariably selected from pearance as Bramins wherever they are among the people of the village; the son, met with, and the Indian features at however, generally succeeding the father, once distinguish them as descended from if competent to perform the duties. Un- a foreign race. The town and small der the head Perbakal, who has the de- temples which we occasionally observed, (signation of Perbakal Rajah, are several have the appearance of a Maharatta vil
inferior Perbakals for generah duties and lage, and the eye is struck with every communications with the villages; and thing strictly Hindu, forming a most ununder the Radin Tumun'gung a similar expected contrast with the present style establishment, bearing the rank and de- of building and appearance of the scaun signation of Kalian 'Tempek. Among the try on passing through Java and the other heads of villages are many whose families Eastern Islands. have formerly distinguished themselves On inquiring into the relative rank in the wars of Bali, and who are termed and importance of their deities, they inGasti. The command of the military is variably described - Bitara Guta as the at present vested in a chief of the Bra- first in rank ; then Bitara Brama, the spimana cast, and who seems to receive rit of fire ; Bitara Wisnu, the spirit of honours and respect next to the prince the waters ; and lastly, Bitara Siwa, the himself.
spirit of the winds. Whatever, at former periods, may have Beside these, tliey (lescribe oumerous been the extent and influence of the Hin- subordinate deities, to whom they pay du religion, Bali is now the only islaud in adoration ; as Dewa Gide Segara, the the Eastern Seas, in which that religion divinity of the great sea ; Dewa Gid'e Dam is still prevailing as the national and es- lam, the divinity who presides over death; tablished religion of the country. That Gid'e Bali Agung, the great and popular high spirit of enterprize which burst the deity of Bali ; Dewa : Gid'e Gunung bounds of the extensive confines of India, Agung, the great deity of the mountain ; like the dove from the ark, rested its which last is the deity of most general weary wing for a while in Java, till dri- worship, ven from thence it sought a refuge in Bali, Bitara Guru, though-considered as the where even' amongst the rudest and most highest objects of worship, is declaredato untutored of savages, it found an asylum. be subordinate to, and only the mediator
The four grand divisions of the Hindus with the divinity, whom they designate are here acknowledged, and the number by the expressive and appropriate term : of Bramana (Bramins) attached to the of Sang Yang Tung'gal, THR-GREAT AND
small state of B'liling exceeds four hun ONLY ONE,
The bodies of deceased persons are cording to his will and pleasure, it being invariably burnt, and the wives and con contrary to usage for the prince to intercubines of the higher classes perform the fere. In the mode of acquiring this ab, sacrifice of Satia,
A few days previous solute property there appears to be but to my landing on Bali, nineteen young little restriction. Prisoners taken in war, women, the wives and concubines of the or families carried off from their pun younger rajali, who was lately put tries, are daily sold and transferred; the to death, sacrificed themselves in this deed of transfer, called in Bali, padol,>
being authenticated by the Tumung'gung. The written language of Bali differs In cases where an outrage is committed but little from that of Java; but the cha- in a neighbouring state in alliance, appliracter has a more ancient form. The cation from the injured party, transmitted Kawi is the sacred language, and under through the proper chief, will cause the stood or pretended to be understood by persons to be restored, and the perpetrathe Bramins. The common language is tors of the outrage are liable to the puna mixture of the original language of the ishment of death ; but, in cases where country and that of Java, in which the the countries are not immediately in allatter predominates.
liance, or when tbe parties carried off Deferring until another occasion a more from a friendly state happen to want particular review of the religion, institu friends to make application in their fations and habits of this people, I will, vour, no notice is taken of such occurfor the present confine myself to such ob
If a free man wishes to marry şervations as occur on the contemplation a female slave, he inay obtain her by purof the peculiar and extraordinary charac chase, provided he can agret, with the ter they exhibit : for the Balinese differs proprietor; otherwise, he may be adwidely both in appearance and character mitted to marry her on condition that he from the Javan, and indeed from every becomes a servant with her : this second other inhabitant of the archipelago. degree of slavery comes under the fitle of
The natives of Bali are about the "rowang.”: Persons convicted of ofmiddle size of Asiatics ; larger and more
fences not of the first magnitude, are geathletic than the Javans or Malays, and nerally sold for slaves hy the prince, or possessed of an air of independence dif- taken to serve him as such. The term ferent altogether from the appearance of rowang" is used to express the second, their more polished neighbours on the or modified degree of slavery. If a man coast of Java. The women, in particu- happens to be indebted, and without the lar,' are well. proportioned. They seem means of payment (the debt exceeding to be on a perfect equality with the men. ten dollars) he may be sold by the Jaxa, They are not secluded from society; and and the amount for which he is disposed their general intercourse with strangers, of is appropriated to repay his creditor; even Europeans, is frank and cheerful. the surplus being divided between the They are fairer than the women in Java; prince, the jaxa, and the creditor, as a and, wearing no covering above the waist, recompense for their trouble : the man the natural beauty and symmetry of their sold in this manner becomes a rowang. shape is neither restrained nor concealed. This state of servitude embraces every * There are two kinds of slavery existing feature of slavery, excepting that the roin Bali, and sanctioned by the laws of wang cannot be sold, put to death, nor. the country. The first is termed “pa.
sent out of the country. If a rowang hiak ;"" by which is understood a perfect wishes to marry, he may do so on receivstate of slavery ; the second,“ kowang," ing his master's consent, but the woman which resembles the condition of the becomes a rowang also. But the rowang slave-debtor in Sumatra and the Malay possesses this advantage, that he may rePenipsula. "Paniak" is synonimous with deem himself at any time, by paying the 6humba" among the Malays, and signi- amount of the debt, or the money may fies a slave. The master has complete be advanced for him ; $0 that his condipossession of his person ; and may law tion is that of a debtor bound to serve fully transfer and punish with death, ac his creditor until the amount of his debt Burning themselves with the deceased, somc
is discharged. In the event of the debt times written Suttee.-Edit.
not amounting to ten dollars, the party Asiat. Journ.-No. V.
Vol. I. 3 K
cannot he sold; but the jaxa will order ably by death. All offences are punished the goods and property of the debtor to in the jaxa's court, which consists of two be disposed of, and an obligation to be jaxas and two kancha or registers; the given for the payment of the remainder perbakal being the prosecutor. The senwhenever his circumstances may admit. tence of the court must be confirmed by the A person indebted to another, and unable prince, previous to execution, his warrant to pay, may make over his wife and chil or lontar, is necessary in all cases; in civil dren to the creditor, who, in such case, cases, the confirmation of the prince is will become rowangs; and, ou eventual only required when persons are sold into payment of bis debt, he may demand slavery. A regular table of fees, in civil back his family.
as well as criminal cases is exhibited in In marriage, the dowry established by court; and the amount divided between custom, for all persons of equal rauk, is the members and the prince. In crimiforty dollars, to be paid to the parents of nal cases, when the punishment is capithe bride*; but, as it happens, in many tal, the property is confiscated, and dicases, that the husband is unable to pay vided in like manner ; but, in other punthis sum, he becomes indebted to the pa- ishments, the parties retain their prorents for the amount, and this consti
perty. Adultery is punished with death tutes a third branch of slavery, under the to the man, and the woman becomes a term. Tatung'gon. The man and wife slave to the prince. Theft is the most réside in the house of the bride's father, prevalent crime. Adultery is uncommon ; and the man performs service in attend- perlaps not twenty cases in a year. The ance on the family, or in assisting in the husband has the power, by law, to kill cultivation of the land. When the hus both parties at the moment, if he detects band is enabled to pay the dowry, he is them in the fact; but not otherwise. then at liberty to quit the father's house, In their domestic relations, however, and to maintain an independant esta the conduct of the Balinese appears unblishment, under the term of “Orang exceptionable ; and there is indeed a suMerdika," or freeman, If the new perior delicacy to what might be expectmarried man, however, behaves to the ed, and their tenderness towards early satisfaction of his wife's family, it often age speaks strongly in favour of their nahappens, that after a certain time, the tural disposition. The parental authofather-in-law consents to remit the whole rity is exercised with such tenderness, or part of the dowry, according to the that it is peculiarly striking when taken circumstances of the parties.
in the same view with the apparently T'he punishments for crimes are death, rude character of the people. They seem confinement, and selling into slavery ; to evince a careless indifference to the rod neither torture to obtain confession, mu of despotism which hangs over their bead; tilation, nor even corporal punishment and an air of good humour and general are used. Theft and robbery are punish- satisfaction prevails throughout. Temed with death; and, for murder, treason, perate in their diet, and strangers to aud gang robbery, in aggravated cases, drynkenness, the rnling passion is gathe punishment of death is inflicted by ming, from cockfighting to an inordinate breaking the limbs with a hatchet : this, and unprincipled desire for conquest.though it assimilates to the manner of Such is the energy of the character, that breaking on the wheel, does not appear it must find some powerful veut ; someto have been adopted from Europeans, thing on which to discharge itself; and, the practice being of ancient date. The not being subjected to a form of governparty is left to lioger, sometimes for se ment calculated to repress their energies, veral days, before death ensues. All ex they evidently feel no inclination to stand ecutions are in public. Other capital still in the scale of civilization. As a punishments are usually performed with nation, they are certainly invincible, as a creese. Open robbery by daylight is to any native power in the Eastern Seas. punished by death ; but stealing, by con Still maintaining a high and noble indefinement only: robbery by night invari- pendence of character, they perhaps ex* In Bali, as well as in Java, the term used for
hibit in a concentrated spot as much of this payment signifies a purchase,
human nature, checked by regulation,
and yet not lowered or refined by it, as is into any description of those singular apto be found in any part of the universe. pendages to the virile 'member, noticed ANCIENT POPULATION OF THE ISLANDS. by the writers on 'Pegu, Siam and Cam
If we contemplate the various nations boja, and adopted among many tribes of and tribes which inhabit the Southern pe
Borneo and 'the Moluccas. Whatever ninsula of India, and the innumerable may have been the origin of this very sinislands composing that portion of the gular custom, traces are to be found, even globe which is comprehended within Po in Java of the veneration in which it once lynesia and Austral Asia, our attention is was held. The practice of triumphing arrested by the striking uniformity in ha over a subdued enemy may be common bits and language which prevails through to the barbarous state in general; but the out, and which induces the inference, ei- deliberate system of man-hunting, ther of one common origin, or of early and "der to procure heads as a trophy of manvery general intercourse.
liness and military gallantry, however it Such customs as the singular practice may have originated in this feeling of unof filing the teeth and dying them black, civilized nature, may be ranked among noticed by the authors who have written the peculiarities of this portion of the on Pegu, Siam, Camboja and Tonquin, globe. and prevailing generally throughout the The language of the different tribes of wholé Malayan archipelago; the practice 'Borneo is ascertained to bear a strong reof distending the perforated lobe of the semblance to that of the scattered tribes ear to an enormous size, noticed in like of Camboja, Champa and Laos. The pomanner to exist in the same parts of the sition maintained by Mr. Marsden, that peninsula, and prevailing throughout the the Malayan is a branch or dialect of archipelago, in a greater or less degree in the widely extended language prevailing proportion with the extension of Isla- through the islands of the archipelago to mism; the practice of tattooing the body, which it gives name, as well as those of noticed among the Burmans and people of the South Sea, appears to be established Laos, common to many tribes in Borneo, and confirined as our information advanand particularly distinguished in some of ces; and, if we except the Papuas, and the islands in the Pacific Ocean of tat scattered tribes having curled "hair, we tooing, betray a common original; and find the general description given of the if it is recollected that this custom, persons of the Siamese and the ruder poas well as that of plucking the beard, pulation of the adjacent countries, which was noticed in South America, the ques have not admitted any considerable adtion may arise, in what course or direc- mixture from the Chinese, to come very tion the tide of population has flowed. In near to the inhabitants of the archipea recent publication, an idea has been started, in reference to the similarity of
yiz. that in all the torrid zone the east wind ge
nerally prevails, which being in uirect opposition the languages, that the population of the
to the course from Malacca and the adjacent is. Philippines and of the islands in the lands, it is fair to conclude the inhabitants of all South Sea originally emigrated from Ame
the islands in ihe South Sca came from the east, rica.* It will not be required of me to go
sailing before the wind; for we have seen it often
happen, that the Indians from the Palaos have * This author notices, that observing, that the
arrived at the Philippines precisely under these proper names of places about the middle of the
circumstances. On the contrary, we have no incontinent of South America, were very similar to
stance on record of any of the Philippine Indians those of the Philippines, he endeavoured to procure
having been, even by accident, carried by the a vocabulary of the country, and to examine the few
winds to the islands to the eastward." words, of the langırage of Chili, which Ercilla men
“ Here, tlierefore," he concludes, "we appear tions in his Araucana, and found them perfectly
to have formed the most probable solution of our conformable tu the language of Tagala." In ex
difficulties; that is, that the first seitlers came amining the structure of the two languages," he
out of the cast, we may presume from the coast of observes, “we are compelled to conclude that
South America, and proceeding gradually to the they flow from one and the same source; and I
westward through the Pacific Ocean, studded as dare lo affirm, that the Indians of the Philippines
we find it with islands and clusters of islands, at are descended from the aborigines of Chili and no very great distance from each other, and of Peru, and that the language of these islands de.
course of easy access before the wind; it follows rives immediately from the parent source, those of
that to whatever point, in an eastern direction, the neighbouring islands being 'dialects of this.” we trace the Tagalic language, we may conclude He adds, " that there are many reasons, and one
that at that point emigration must have commenin particulår, for supposing that the islands in the ced."- Description of the Philippine Islands, by South Sea could not be peopled from the westward,
Martinez de Tuniga-Marns, Trans. page 30.
lago, who, in fact, may be said to differ
as explained by Sir William Jones, in only in being of a smaller size, and in as which Saka is supposed to have reigned far as foreign colonization and intercourse
seventy-nine years subsequent to the commay have changed them,
mencement of the christian era. But To trace the sources whence this colo whether Saka himself, or only some of nization and consequent civilization flow his followers, assuming this name, found ed, and the periods at which it was intro their way to Java, may be questionable ; duced into different states, is a subject and it is not impossible that the Javanese new to the historian, and not uninterest may have subsequently adopted the era, ing to the philosopher.
on a more extended intercourse with the If we admit the natural inference, that
further peninsula.* A connection would the population of the islands originally
at any rate appear to have existed beemigrated from the continent, and, at the tween Java and Siam; as this Adi Saka same time, the probability, that the coun is not only represented to have founded try lying between Siam and China, is the
the present era of Java, but to have inimmediate source from whence such emi
troduced the original letters of the Javagration originally proceeded, the history
nese alphabet, by a modification of the of the Eastern Islands may, with reference letters used in Western India, and in to that of Java in particular, in which a
Siam. It does not appear that either he powerful Hindu government was without
or his followers established themselves in doubt early established, be divided into
any authority; and we can trace but litfive distinct periods.
tle with certainty during the following The first division would include the pe five centuries. Some of the Javanese acriod commencing with the earliest ac.
counts refer to the arrival of various setcounts of the population, down to the
tlers during this period; but we find no first establishment of a foreign colony ju
traces either of a government having existJava, of which the written annals of the
ed, or of the establishment of any extencountry make mention. The date of this
sive colony, until the commencement of is pretty accurately ascertained, and may
the sixth century. I should observe, in be fixed at about the commencement of
this place, that the Javanese year correthe sixth century of the Javanese era, or
sponds pretty nearly with the Hindu year A. D. 600 ; at which time only the period of Salivarna ; and that the word Saka, in of authentic history can be considered to
Sanscrit, means an epoch or era, and is commence.
applied to the founder of an era. The origin of all nations is buried in
The Javanese occasionally use the niiobscurity; and, unless we may succeed in
merals for recording dates; but more geobtaining new lights from Siam or China, nerally, and particularly in dates of imwe shall have but little to guide us, du
portance, they adopt an hieroglyphical-inring the early part of this division, be
vention, termed “Chondro Sangkolo,” in yond conjecture, and such general inferen
which the different numerals, from one to ces as may be drawn from a similarity in
ten, are represented by particular objects. person, language and usages, still found
This is either effected, in buildings and to prevail among the less civilized tribes. According to the division of Sir William
sculpture, by the actual representations of
these objects; or, in writing, by the inJones, the original population of the islands were doubtless of the Tartar race,
sertion of their names, the meaning freand probably from the same stock as the
quently having some allusion to the fact
which the date records : thus, the date of Siamese. The Javans date the commence,
the destruction of Majapahit, in the Javament of their era from the arrival of Adi Saka, the minister of Prabu Joyo Boyo,
nese year 1400, is recorded as follows, the
order of the numerals being reversed sovereign of Hastina, and the fifth in descent from Arjuno the favorite of Krisna,
Sirna ilang Kertaning-Burni. and the leading hero of the B’rata Yud'ha.
Gone-gone-is the work-of the land. 0 0 4
1 This epoch corresponds with that of the introduction of a new faith into China,
Anterior to this supposed arrival of Adi and the further peninsula, by Saka, Sha
Saka, the two most eventful periods in ka, or Sakia, as he is differently termed,
* The present Javanese year is 1748. and with the chronology of the Hindus,
That of Bali