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the history of these countries of which than to one island in particular, that the tradition and history make mention, are appellation was given. Both Ptolemy -first, that which includes the excursions and the Arabians would seem to have disof the far-famed race, which have been tinguished the islands by one general supposed to have peopled South America, * name. By the one they were termed “Jaand according to Sir William Jones, “im badios Insulæ ;' by the others, ported into the furthest parts of Asia, the Jawa ;' and hence, probably, the confurites and fabulous history of Rama;" and sion in the travels of Marco Polo, and the secondly, that which includes the conse still disputed question between Java Maquences of the invasion of India by Alex jor and Java Minor.* ander the Great. That the fabulous his The second division would include the tory of Rama as well as the exploits of period between this first regular establishAlexander, have been current in the Ma. ment from Western India, and the delayan archipelago from time immemorial, cline and fall of the first Eastern Empire cannot be questioned ; and it may be re in Java, which may be fixed with toleramarked, that while the Javans use the ble accuracy at about the Javanese year term Rama for father, the Malays uni- 1000, or A.D. 1073. versally attempt to trace their descent During this period, by far the most from Alexander or his followers. Suma eventful in the history of Java, we shall tra was long considered to have been the find that colonies of foreigners established T'aprobune of the ancients; and, when we themselves, not only in Java, but in variadvert to the single circumstance, that ous other islands of the archipelago; that this was said to be a country in which the the arts, particularly those of architecnorth polar, star was not visible, or only ture and sculpture, flourished in a supepartially, we must still doubt the correct rior degree, and that the language, literaness of the modern conclusion in favour ture and institutions of the continent of of Ceylon. The eastern islands furnish India were transfused in various directhat peculiar kind of produce which has tions through the oriental islands. It was from the earliest times been in demand during this period, that the principal temby continental nations, and the same avi- ples, of which the ruins now exist in Java, dity, with wbich, in modern days, Euro were built ; and, beside the concurring peans contended for the rich products of testimonies of tradition, and the written the Moluccas, actuated, in all probability, compositions of the country, the numeat a much earlier period, adventurers rous inscriptions and dates, on stone and from Western India. Traces of inter

copper, the characters of which we are course with Ethiopia may be found at this now able to decypher, as well as the anday, in the scattered tribes of the woolly- cient coins, would lend essential aid in haired race peculiar to Africa, which are establishing a correct chronology. On to be found in the Andamans, in the the one hand, it would be our task to disouthern part of the further peninsula, rect our inquiries to the history of the vaand throughout the archipelago ; and rious continental nations whence these that the Hindus were at one period an foreigners may have proceeded; and, enterprizing and commercial nation, may, on the other, to the nature and extent of I think, be established, with little diffi

the establishments, intercourse, and civiculty, from the incontestable proofs which at this day exist in Java, and the traffic * If we reflect upon the extent and nature of the which still exists in native vessels and on

recent volcanic phenomena in Sumbawa, and the

effects which have been produced by similar connative capital between the Coromandel

vulsions of nature, we are led to conclyde, that the coast and the Malayan peninsula. If any present appearance and form of the various islands country, therefore, in the archipelago, lays of the archipelago may be very different from claim to this distinction more than ano

what they were two or three thousand years ago.

At that period, these islands may have formed ther, it is Java; but, probably, it was

part of the main land, or have been themselves rather to the Eastern Islands generally, united in one continent.-An authentic account

of this extraordinary phenomenon, as far as it can + See a former note on the similarity between be collected from information yet received, is subthe languages of South America and the Philip mitted to the Society, and will be found in its pines, and the recent works of Humboldt, on the transactions. I can vouch for the correctness of existence of Hindu remains still found in Ameri. the statements; and the raw materials may be 3 ca, in support of this assertion.

found useful in the hand of the natural historian.

lization introduced by them into the dif from Siam, from Champa, from China ferent islands.

and from Japan, frequented Java in the This period will commence from the ar. greatest number. But the object of the rival of Awap, the reputed son of Balia first importance will be, to trace the inAtcha, sovereign of Kudjiràt, who came troduction, progress and final establishin search of a celebrated country, describ- ment of the Mahometan faith in the vaed in the writings of Saka; and who, un rious countries where it now is acknow. der the name of Sewelo Cholo, established ledged as the established religion, and the first regular monarchy of which the particularly in Java, where we find, that Javanese annals make mention; and in- notwithstanding attempts to make proclude the adventures of the celebrated selytes were 'as early as the comPanji, the pride and admiration of suc mencement of the twelfth century, such ceeding ages. Our attention would also was the attachment of the people to their be directed, in a particular manner, to the ancient faith and institutions, that these intercourse between Java and the other efforts did not effectually succeed till the islands, and the nature and extent of the latter end of the fifteenth century of the foreign establishments formed by Java. Christian era. Tradition, and the popular romances of A fourth division would commence the country, represent, not only the king with the establishment of the Mahomedoms of Goa and Luhú in Celebes, but tan government in Java, and might be even the kingdom of Menangkabau, in brought down to the establishment of the Sumatra, to have been established about Dutch in the Eastern Seas, which may the conclusion of this period, by princes be taken as A. D. 1600 ; and a fifth, and from Java.

by no means uninteresting period, might The third division would include the include the history of the European estaperiod from the above date to the final blishments, down to the conquests by the overthrow of the second Eastern Empire, British arms in 1811. in the Javanese year 1400. Some idea The further prosecution of this extenmay be formed of the power and opulence sive inquiry would lead me beyond the of this second empire, established at Ma limits at present prescribed ; and I must, japahit, from the extensive ruins of that therefore, conclude with drawing your city, still extant. These I took an op attention to the striking similarity beportunity of visiting during my late tour; tween the early state of Greece, and that and I believe I am within the mark, when of the Malayan islands. Change but the I represent the walls to have enclosed a names, and the words of Mitford's Inspace of upward of twenty miles in cir troduction to his History of Greece will cumference.

be found equally applicable to this more Within this period will be included the extensive archipelago. establishment of the Western Empire at “ Thus," he observes, “ Greece in its Pajajaran, the subsequent division of the early days, was in a state of perpetual maisland under the princes of Majapahit and rauding and piratical warfare; cattle, as Pajajaran, the eventual supremacy of Ma the great means of subsistence, were first japahit, and the final overthrow of the

the great object of plunder : then, as the government and ancient institutions of

inhabitants of some parts by degrees setthe country, by the general establishment

tled to agriculture, men, women and chilof the Mahometan faith.

dren were sought for as slaves. But Greece It is during this period that Java may had nothing more peculiar than its adjabe said to have risen to the highest pitch cent sea, where small islands were so of her civilization yet known, and to have thickly scattered, that their inhabitants, commanded a more extensive intercourse, and in some measure' those of the shores throughout the archipelago, than at any of the surrounding continents also, wete former period. Colonies from Java were 'mariners by necessity. Water expeditisuccessively planted in Sumatra, the Ma ons therefore were soon found most comlayan peninsula, Borneo and Bali, the modious for carrying off spoil.

The princes of which countries still trace their Greeks, moreover, in their more barbadescent from the house Majapahit; and rous state, became acquainted with the that adventurers frona Western India, precious metals; for, the Phænicians,

whose industry, ingenuity and adventur civilization than any other nation in the ous spirit of commerce led them early to southern hemisphere. explore the further shores of the Mediter

JAPAN. ranean, and even to risk the dangers of You will, however, expect from me the ocean beyond, discovered mines of some notice regarding Japan" that cegold and silver in some of the islands of lebrated and imperial island,” which, to the Ægean ; and, on its northern coast use the words of Sir William Jones, they formed establishments in several of bears “ a pre-eminence among eastern the islands, and Thasus, which lay conve kingdoms, analogous to that of Britain nieut for communication with the most among the nations of the west ;” and, productive mines, became the seat of however slender may have been the intheir principal factory. Thus was offer- formation procured, such as it is, I vened the most powerful incentive to piracy,

ture to submit it to you, nearly as I rein a sea whose innumerable islands and ceived it from the verbal communications ports afforded singular opportunity for

of Dr. Ainslie. the practice. Perhaps the conduct of the It may be satisfactory and gratifying in Phænicians, towards the uncivilized na the first place to observe, that every intions among whom the desire of gain led formation which has been obtained, tends them, was not always the most upright to confirm the accuracy, the ability, and or humane; hostilities would naturally the impartiality of Kæmpfer, whose acensue, and hence might first arise the es count of Japan is perhaps one of the best timation of piracy which long prevailed books of the kind that ever was written, among the Greeks as an honourable considering the circumstances under practice.”

which he was sent. I am assured that Java has long been advanced beyond there is not a misrepresentation throughthat state in which piracy and robbery out; he was a man of minute accuracy are held to be honourable in the eyes of and felicity of talent, who saw every men; but the picture will be found pretty thing as it was, and not through the mist correct of those islands strictly denomi or medium of any preconception. The nated Malayan.

Japanese observe of him, that he is, in The superior and extraordinary ferti his History, “ the very apostle of their lity of the soil may serve to account for faith,” from whose works alone they the extensive population of Java, com know even their own country. Their par edwith that of the other islands; and, first enquiry was for a copy of Kæmpfer ; when, to the peaceable and domestic ba- and, endeavouring to evince the estimabits of an agricultural life, are added the tion in which this author was heid by facilities for invasion along an extensive them, their observation literally was, line of coast, accessible in every direc that “ He had drawn out their heart tion, it will not have been surprising from them, and laid it palpitating before that she should have fallen an easy prey us, with all the movements of their goto the first invader.

She appears to

vernment, and the actions of their men !” have lost, by these invasions, much of Referring you therefore, to the works that martial spirit and adventurous en of Kæmpfer for an account of their histerprize which distinguishes the popula- tory, institutions, and acquirements, as tion of the other isles; but, at the same the genuine data on which this interesttime, to have retained, not only the pri- ing people may be appreciated, I need mitive simplicity of her own peculiar only offer a few notices on the character usages, but all the virtues and ad- which they appeared to Dr. Ainslie to vantages of the more enlightened institu- display, during a residence of four months, tious which have been introduced at dif and as far as he had an opportunity of ferent periods from a foreign source. At judging. all events, when we consider that her They are represented to be a nervous, population cannot be less than four mil vigorous people, whose bodily and menlions, and when we witness the character tal powers assimilate much nearer to and literature of the people as it is even those of Europe than what is attributed now exhibited, we must believe that Java to Asiatics in general. Their features had once attained a far higher degree of are masculine and perfectly European,

with the exception of the small lengthen the women here are by no means seed Tartar ege, which almost universally cluded—they associate among themselves, prevails, and is the only feature of re- like the ladies of Europe. During the resemblance between them and the Chinese. sidence of Dr. Ainslie, frequent invitatiThe complexion is perfectly fair, and in ons and entertainments were given ; on deed blooming ; the women of the higher these occasions, and at one in particular, classes being equally fair with Europeans, a lady from the court of Jeddo is repreand having the bloom of health more ge sented to have done the honours of the nerally prevalent among them than usu table with an ease, elegance, and adally found in Europe.

dress that would have graced a Parisian. For a people who have had very few, The usual dress of a Japanese woman of if any external aids, the Japanese cannot middle rank costs perhaps as much as but rank high in the scale of civilization.

would supply the wardrobe of an EuroThe traits of a vigorous mind are dis- pean lady of the same rank for twenty played in their proficiency in the sciences, years. and particularly in metaphysics and judi The Japanese, with an apparent coldcial astrology. The arts they practice ness, like the stillness of the Spanish speak for themselves, and are deservedly character, and derived nearly from the acknowledged to be in a much higher de same causes, that system of espionage, gree of perfection than among the Chi- and that principle of disunion, dictated nese, with whom they are by Europeans by the principles of both governments ; so' frequently confounded ; the latter are represented to be eager för novelty, have been stationary at least as long as and warm in their attachments; opeu to we have known them, while the slightest strangers, and, abating the restrictions of impulse seems sufficient to give a deter- their political institutions, a people who mination to the Japanese character, seem inclined to throw themselves into which would progressively improve until the hands of any nation of superior init attained the same height of civilization telligence. They have at the same time with the European. Nothing indeed is a great contempt and disregard of every so offensive to the feelings of a Japanese thing below their own standard of morals as to be compared in any one respect with and habits, as instanced in the case of the the Chinese, and the only occasion on Chinese. which Dr. Ainslie saw the habitual po This may appear to be contradicted by liteness of a Japanese ever surprized into the mission from Russia in 1814, under a burst of passion was, when, upon a si Count Kreusenstern ; but the circummilitude of the two nations being un stances under which that mission was guardedly asserted, the latter laid his placed should be considered. From the hand upon his sword !

moment of their arrival they were under The people are said to have a strong the influence of an exclusive factor, who inclination to foreign intercourse, not continued to rain upon them every possiwithstanding the political institutions to

ble ignominy which can be supposed to the contrary; and perhaps the energy have flowed from the despotism of Japan, which characterizes the Japanese charac- through the medium of an interested and ter cannot be better elucidated, than by avaricious man, who dreaded competition that extraordinary decision which ex or the publication of his secret. The cluded the world from their shores, and warehouse in which the Russian mission confined within their own limits a peo- had been lodged was pointed out to Dr. ple who had before served as mercenaries Ainslie, who observes, that, “aš the rats throughout all Polynesia, and traded with were let out the Count and his suite were all nations—themselves adventurous na let in, where they remained for six long vigators.

months, with scarce room to turn ; the There is by no' means that uniformity mark of obloquy to the Japanese, and the among them which is observed in China, laughing stock of the European factory," where the impression of the government Şo lively, indeed, was the impression of may be said to have broken down all in the occurrence, that the chief Japanese dividuality and left one Chinese the coun officer asked the English commissioner if terpart of another. : Unlike the Chinese, he too would condescend to play the part

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of the Russian count !--the officer an of that caste; and from whom you can swering to his own question, “ No, I expect nothing less than an irruption still trust pot."

more fatal to your tranquillity.” Such The mistaken idea of the illiberality of an argument, pushed by a narrow-minded the Japanese in religious matters, seems

and interested factor, could not but carry to have been fully proved ; and the late weight with the Japanese, accustomed to mission experienced the reverse in a de- respect and to place all confidence in their gree hardly credible, and little expected western visitors. by themselves from the representations They are not averse to the indulgence previously made to them. The story of of social excess; and, on these occathe annual test of trampling on the cru sions, give a latitude to their speech cifix, at Nanggasaki and the other im which one would hardly suppose they portant cities, is a story derided by the

dared to do in Japan. Japanese priesthood, On visiting the It is an extraordinary fact, that for great temple on the hills of Nanggasaki, seven years past, since the visit of Capthe English commissioner was received tain Pellew, notwithstanding the deterwith marked regard and respect by the

mination of the empire not to enter into - venerable patriarch of the northern pro

foreign commerce, the English language vinces, eighty years of age, who enter

has, in obedience to an edict of the Emtajned him most sumptuously. On show peror, been cultivated with considerable ing him round the courts of the temple, success by the younger meinbers of the one of the English officers present heed- College of Interpreters, who indeed were lessly exclaimed in surprize, Jasus Chris

found eager in their inquiries after Engt148 ! The patriarch, turning half round, lish books. with a placid smile, bowed significantly

While the cominissioner was at Nangexpressive of “We know you are Jasus gasaki, there arrived a large detachment, Christus; well, don't obtrude him upon

of officers of rank, who had been out us in our temples and we remain friends;” nearly four years and not yet completed and so, with a hearty shake of the hands,

one-fourth of a survey on which they were these two opposites parted. This leave- engaged. These officers were attended taking reminded Dr. Ainslie very forcibly by a numerous and splendid retinue, and of the story Dr. Moore tells so well of the

were employed in making an actual surDuke of Hamilton and himself, taking vey of every foot of the empire and the leave of the Pope. The Pope, who had dependent isles. The survey appeared to conceived a regard for the young Duke,

be conducted on a scientific principle, to on the latter making his congé said, “I

be most minute and accurate in its exeknow you laugh at the benediction of a

cution and to have for its object the Pope ; but the blessing of an old man completion of a regular geographical and can do you no harm ;” and, so saying, statistical description of the country. i laid his hand on his head, and blessed him. In a word, the opinion of Dr. Ainslie

The massacre of Samebarra is by the is, that the Japanese are a people with Japanese attributed to European intrigue;

whom the European world might hold juand eren Kæmpfer notices that the Eu

tercourse without compromise of characropean ships of war formed the practical ter. For the Japanese themselves, they breach, through which the Japanese en

are wonderfully inquisitive in all points tered, and perpetrated that massacre, to

of science, and possess a mind curious which it would appear they had been ori- and anxious to receive information, withginally prompted by others.

out inquiring from what quarter it That the negociations from England on

comes. a former occasion should not have been

In the same spirit let us hope, that now, more successful than the late attempt


That spell upon the minds ofmen from Russia, may easily be accounted for, Breaks, never to unite againwhen we reflect on the possibility of the no withering policy may blast the fair favoured factor having said to them," Forty fruits of that spirit of research which has years ago your throne has been all but gone forth from this hall; nor continue, overturned by the intrigue of these here- under any circumstances, to slut out one tics ; this embassy comes from the king half of the world from the intelligence who has married the daughter of the head which the other half may possess. Asiatic Journ.-No. V.

VOL. I. 3 L

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