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For the Asiatic Journal. AN EXCURSION TO ADAM'S PEAK IN THE ISLAND OF

CEYLON.

On the morning of the 26th of April, ing any further; assuring him that no 1815, Lieutenant Malcolm, who com white man ever did or ever could ascend mands a detachment of the 1st Ceylo- the mountain. This superstitious remonnian Saffragam, set out with a party of strance was disregarded, and as soon as one serjeant and four Malay soldiers from the priest had got ready their lights, the Batugedera, to ascend the mountain cal party set off about eleven o'clock at night. led Adam's Peak.

After passing three small forts erected Lieutenant Malcolm had been detained

this war, to repel the king of Candy's some days in expectation of guides, whom troops, they began to ascend the first Dolip Nelemy, the headman of Batuge- mountain, and reached the top in four dera, had engaged to procure; but after hours. From the next hill the Cultra frequent disappointments, he resolved to River descends, and upon the rocks close wait no longer, and to take his charge of to that stream tlie party breakfasted at obtaining guides at Gillemelle on the way. five o'clock. When their breakfast was Allunnecessary incumbrances were avoid over they continued their way up the seed, and the whole baggage consisted of cond hill, Adam's Peak still towering provisions for three days, some blankets, far above their heads. After surmounta measuring chain, and a quadrant. The ing two other distinct ascents equally road followed the windings of the Cul steep but of less height, they came to the tura River, which, at the distance of two foot of the Peak itself. The face of the miles from Batugedera, receives the Mu hill here seemed to be quite perpendicugelle, two chains in breadth at the con lar, and the pilgrims who had left Talafluence. On the left banks are the ruins bula before them, were seen at a great of a fort erected last war to command the height climbing up the precipice by means fort. From the Mugelle to the Rest of the iron chains which are for that pun House of Gillemelle, is 34 English miles.

pose fixed in the rock. Lieutenant MalTwo guides were procured after some de colm and his people stopped a few milay at Gillemelle, and the party leaviug nutes to take breath, and after a consithe Rest House, crossed immediately the derable exertion they got safe to the top Malwellow half a mile further, another between eight and nine in the morning river called the Mashelle. From the of the 27th of April. banks of the latter, the road entered into The view from this great elevation was a forest of noble trees, straight as pines, for a short time most beautifully magniand from fifty to seventy feet in height. ficent, and well rewarded all the labours About four in the afternoon Lieutenant of ascent. On one side there appeared Malcolm arrived at Talabula, ten miles as far as the eye could reach, a vast exand eighteen chains from Batugedera. tent of wooded hills like an ocean of Here there is a temple and a Rest House forest whose waves had suddenly been for the accommodation of pilgrims on fixed in one unalterable position; on the their way to Adam's Peak : about two others the tops only of the hills rising hundred of both sexes and of all sorts above the fogs, resembled a number of and conditions were assembled at this well wooded islands, scattered over the place, some on the road to the moun sea that filled all the space below. Batutains, and some on their return from it. gedera was seen on one side under the The dance was continued to the sound of feet, and on the other in the distance, tom-toms and Cingalese songs without the Candian mountains interspersed with intermission, until the pilgrims who were clouds. This noble prospect was but of going to mount the hill, began to prepare short duration, for suddenly a thick fog their lights. About eight o'clock they set arose from the bottom of the mountain out in different groups.

and drew a curtain over all the sublimity The Head-Priest endeavoured to dise of the scene. The top of the Peak is consuade Lieutenant Malcolm from proceed- tracted to a small compass, it is seventy

two feet long and fifty-four broad, and a the mountain, which they found more parapet wall five feet high closes it all laborious to descend than it had been to round. On the east side a part of this climb. The rain which soon began to wall has fallen, and some of the remain pour down increased the ditficulties of der is much out of repair. In the middle the road, but they reached Palabula in of this area is a large rock of iron stone, safety about four in the afternoon, and upon which is the mark of Adam's left next morning returned to their quarters foot, though some help of imagination is at Batugedera. required to trace it out. This sacred The road from Palabula is a continued footstep is covered over with a small ascent over rocks and fragments of iron wooden building twelve feet long, uipe stones. Sound lungs and hard feet are broad, and four and a half high to the requisite to perform the journey, for it is tiles, and is besides immediately enclosed often necessary to climb barefoot over by a frame of copper fitted to its shape, the iron stone. Palanquins are quite out and ornamented with four rows of pre of the question.

In heavy rains there cious stones.

may be some risk, but in fair weather The party was not provided with a the mountain may be ascended with little British flag, but fired three vollies to the difficulty and without any danger. The great astonishment of the Budhists, for it summit of the Peak was only clear about is probable this was the first armed party a quarter of an hour, which did not althat ever had ascended the Peak. The low time enough for taking any bearPriest warned them of approaching rain, ings. and they made the best of their way down

For the Asiatic Journal.

AN ACCOUNT OF THE NUPTIALS OF VAZEER ALLEE,

Extracted from a private Letter.

LucNow, FEB. 28, 1795.-I shall give treatment his child will experience when you an account of the celebration of an she is consigned to the animal love of anoeastern Nawab's marriage, to which I was ther; that they will be merely slaves in lately invited. It was the nuptials of Va purple and fine linen ; loaded with jewels zeer Allee, the eldest son, real or pre to please the eyes of their tyrants, and tended, of Nawab Asuf ud Dowlah, the never allowed to step beyond the precincts present Nawab of Oude, whose capital is of the Zanana, except on occasional visits Lucnow; I say'real or pretended, as pub to some female friend ; nor ever suffered lic rumour confidently asserts, that the to behold the face of any man besides Nawab is incapable of having children, their masters, (for they cannot be called though his seraglio contains above 500 of husbands without outrage to the term,) the greatest beauties of India. All except through the latticed windows of his children are by adoption, and they their high walled prisons, called Zaamount to about 60 in number, 32 sons nanas. The bridegroom was about and 28 daughters. Pregnant women thirteen, dark complexioned, and not are purchased or beguiled into the se handsome; the bride about ten, still dark. raglio, where they lay in ; if a son, a

er, and still more ordinary. We went in royal salute is fired, which proclaims the the evening to the celebration; our party birth of a young Nawab; if a daughter,

consisted of about four ladies and twelve the public knows nothing; as women are

gentlemen ; we went all on elephants can in this country considered merely as a

parisoned. On the plains which border piece of necessary furniture, to ornament on the city of Lucnow, the Nawab had the Haram; and the birth of a daughter pitched many tents, but two large ones in occasions no joy to the father. Judging particular, made of strong cotton cloth, from his own conduct, he foresees the

lined with the finest English broad clothy

ver;

cut in stripes of different colours, with cords Allee; the other English gentlemen and of silk and cotton. These two large tents ladies, and the native nobility, were incost five lacks of rupees, or above 50,0001. termixed on the right and left. On both sterling; they were each about 120 feet sides of the road, from the garden to the long, 60 broad, and the poles about 60 tents, were raised artificial sceneries of feet high, and the walls of the tents about bambou work very high, representing bas10 feet high; the walls of one of the tents tions, arches, minaret, and towers, cowere cut in lattice work, for the women vered with lights in lamps, which made of the Nawab's seraglio, and the principal a grand and sublime display: and on each native nobility, to see through. In front side of the procession, in front of the of the large tent destined for our recep line of elephants, were dancing girls richly tion, and for the reception of the princi- dressed (carried on platforins, supported pal nobility at the Nawab's court, was a by men called bearers) who danced as we large awning of fine English broad cloth, went along. All these platforms were called in this country a shumeeana, sup

covered with gold and silver cloths; and ported on about 60 poles covered with sil. there were two girls and two musicians

this awning, or shumeeuna, was about on each platform; the number of these 100 feet long, and the same in breadth. platforms were about a hundred on each When we arrived, the good humoured side of the procession. All the ground Nawab received us very politely, and con

from the tents to the garden, over which ducted us to one of the large tents destin we moved along, was inlaid with fireed for the men, where we sat for about an works, and at every step the elephants hour ; he was covered with jewels, to the took, the ground burst before us, and amount of at least two millions sterling ;

threw up artificial stars in the heavens, we then went out, and sat under the shu to emulate those created by the band of meeana, which was lighted up with a cou Providence ; besides innumerable rockets ple of hundred elegant Europe girandoles, and hundreds of wooden shells, that and as many shades with wax candles, burst in the air and shot forth a thousand and many hundred flambeaux ; the glare fiery serpents, which winded through the and reflection was dazzling and offensive · heavens, illuminated the sky, and turned to the sight; here were above a hundred a dark night into a bright day, assisted dancing girls, richly dressed, who went by the light of the bamboo scenery. The through their elegant but rather lascivious procession moved on very slowly to give dances and motions, and sung some soft time for the fireworks, which were inairs of the country, chiefly Persic and laid in the ground to go off, and the Hindu Persic. About seven at night the whole of this grand scene was further bridegroom Vazeer Allee, the young Na lighted by above 3000 flambeaux, carried wab, appeared loaded so absurdly with by men hired for the occasion. In this jewels, that he could scarcely stagger un manner we moved on in stately pomp to der the precious weight. We then mount the garden, which though ovly a mile off, ed our elephants to proceed to a rich and we took two hours to reach. When we extensive garden, which was about a mile arrived at the garden-gate we descended off ; the procession was grand beyond from the elephants, and entered the garconception. It consisted of above 1200 den, which we found illuminated by inelephants richly caparisoned, and drawn numerable transparent paper lamps or up in a regular line like a regiment of lanterns of various colours, suspended to soldiers ; about 100 of the elephants which the branches of the trees. In the centre were in the centre had castles, called of the garden was a large edifice, to which houdas, lashed on their backs, which we ascended, and were introduced into a were covered with silver. In the centre grand saloon, adorned with innumerable was the Nawab mounted on an uncom girandoles and pendant lustres of English monly large elephant, covered with cloth manufacture, lighted with wax candles. of gold, and a rich howda covered with Here we had an elegant and sumptuous gold, aud studded with precious stones. collation of European and native dishes, On his right hand was the British resi with wines, fruits, and sweetmeats; at dent at his court, Mr. George Johystone, the same time above a hundred dancing and on his left the young Nawab Vazeer girls sung their sprightly airs, and danced

their native dances. Thus passed the Asiatic vanity, that such a spectacle was time till the dawn, when we all returned never before seen in India, and never to our respective homes, quite delighted would be seen again. The whole exand wonder-struck with this enchanting pence of this marriage feast, which was scene, which surpassed in splendour every repeated for three successive nights in the sight of the kind beheld in this country; same manner I have described, cost above the affable Nawab rightly observed, with 300,0001.--Yours, &c.

For the Asiatic Journal.

ON THE PERSONS OF THE HINDOOS.*

The colour of the Indians is generally niard and Portuguese; and from the mideither that of copper or of the olive, but dle of the under lip there is another such both with various shades. It is not abso- indenture, which loses itself a little above lutely the proximity of the inhabitant to the chin : these lines, chiefly remarked in the equator, that determines his complex- persons of their habits, give an air of saion in India ; other physical causes, from gacity to the men, and of delicacy to the differences which arise as by starts in re physiognomy of the women. The outline gions equally distant from the sun, and of the face is various, oftener oval than of it is in their complexion that less nation any other form, particularly in the woal generality is found, than in any other

men ;

and this variety of outline is anoof the properties of their figure : some are ther of the principal characters which disalmost black ; but these are either inha- tinguishes the Indian from the Tartar as bitants of the woods, or people inured to well as Malay; whose faces are univerlabour and fatigues uncommon to the rest sally of the same shape ; that is, as broad of their countrymen.

as they are long. The hair of the Indians is without ex The texture of the human frame in Inception long, fine, and of a jet black. The dia, seems to bear proportion with the nose, if not always aquiline, is never bu- rigidity of the northern monsoon, as that ried in the face, por with large distorted does with the distance from Tartary ; nostrils, as in the Coffrees of Africa, and but as in the southern monsoon heats are in the Malay nations. Their lips, though felt at the very foot of mount Caucasus, in general larger than in Europeans, have intense as in any part of India, very few nothing of that disagreeable protuberancy of the inhabitants of Indostan are endowprojecting beyond the nose, which charac- ed with the nervous strength, or athletic terises the two people just mentioned. size, of the robustest nations of Europe. The eyebrows are full in the men, slender On the contrary, southward of Lahore in the women, well-placed in both. The we see throughout India a race of men, eyelid is of the finest form,-long, neither whose make, physiognomy,'and muscular opening circularly, as in many of the in- strength, convey ideas of an effeminacy habitants of France, nor scarce opening at which surprizes when pursued through all, as in the Chinese. The iris is always such numbers of the species, and when black, but rarely with lustre, excepting compared to the form of the European in their children, and in some of their who is making the observation. The saiwomen : nor is the white of the eye per- lor no sooner lands on the coast, than nafectly clear from a tinge of yellow; their ture dictates to him the full result of this countenance therefore receives little ani- comparison ; he brandishes his stick in mation, but rather a certain air of lan- sport, and puts fifty Indians to fight in a guor, from this feature. From the nos moment : confirined in his contempt of a trils to the middle of the upper lip they pusillanimity and an incapacity of resisthave an indenture, strongly marked by ance, suggested to him by their physiogtwo ridges, seldom observable in the nomy and form, it is well if he recollects northern Europeans, but often in the Spa- that the poor Indian is still a man.

The muscular strength of the Indian is From Orme's Historical Fragments. still less than might be expected from the

appearance of the texture of his frame. off by the slimness and regularity of their Two English sawyers have performed in figure. Brought into the world with a one day the work of thirty-two Indians: facility unknown to the labours of Euroallowances made for the difference of dex pean women : never shackled in their interity, and the advantage of European in- fancy by ligatures ; sleeping on their backs struments, the disparity is still very great ; without pillows; they are in general very and would have been more, had the Indi- straight; and there are few deformed an been obliged to have worked with the persons amongst them. instrument of the European, as he would Labour produces not the same effect on scarcely have been able to have wielded it. the human frame in Indostan as in other

As much as the labourer in Indostan is countries; the common people of all deficient in the capacity of exerting a sorts are a diminutive race, in comparigreat deal of strength at an onset, so is. son with those of higher casts and better he endowed with a certain suppleness fortunes ; and yield still more to them in throughout all his frame, which enables all the advantages of physiognomy. Prohim to work long in his own degree of la hibited from marrying out of their rebour; and which renders those contor- spective tribes, every cast seems to pretions and postures, which would cramp serve its respective proportion of health the inhabitant of northern regions, no and beauty, in sanity and ugliness. There constraint to him. There are not more is not a handsomer race in the universe, extraordinary tumblers in the world. than the Banians of Guzerat : the HaramTheir messengers will go fifty miles a day, cores, whose busiuess is to remove all for twenty or thirty days without inter kinds of filth; and the buryers and burmission. Their infantry march faster, ners of dead bodies, are as remarkably and with less weariness than Europeans; ugly. but could not march at all, if they were Nature seems to have showered beauty to carry the same baggage and acccoutre on the fairer sex through Indostan, with ments,

a more lavish hand than in most other Exceptions to this general defect of ner countries. They are all, without excepvous strength, are found in the inhabit tion, fit to be married before thirteen, ants of the mountains which run in ran and wrinkled before thirty-flowers of ges of various directions throughout the too short a duration not to be delicate; continent of Indostan. In these, even and too delicate to last long. Segregated under the tropic, Europeans have met with from the company of the other sex, and a savage whose bow they could scarcely strangers to the ideas of attracting attendraw to the head of a formidable arrow, tion, they are only the handsomer for this tinged with the blood of tigers whose skins ignorance; as we see in them, beauty in he offers to sale. Exceptions to the general the noble simplicity of nature. Hints placid countenance of the Indians, are have already been given of their physiogfound in the inhabitants of the woods, nomy: their skins are of a polish and who, living chiefly on their chace, and softness beyond that of all their rivals on perpetually alarmed by summons and at the globe: a statuary would not succeed tacks from the princes of the plains, for better in Greece itself, in his pursuit of tributes withheld, or ravages committed, the Grecian form; and although in the wear an air of dismay, suspicion, treach men he would find nothing to furnish the ery, and wildness, which renders them ideas of the Farnesian Hercules, he would hideous; and would render them ter find in the women the finest hints of the rible, if their physiognomy carried in it Medicean Venus. any thing of the fierceness of the moun If we consider the impossibility of a taineer.

stranger being admitted into any one cast, The stature of the Indian is various : to which a Bramin will administer any the northern inhabitant is as tall as the of his sacerdotal functions, and the unigenerality of our own nation: more to versal restriction of marriage to persons the south their height diminishes remarka of the same cast; we shall not be surably; and on the coast of Coromandel we prized to find that the Indian has premeet with many whose stature would ap- served his physiognomy from a resempear dwarfish, if this idea was not taken blance with any of his neighbours,

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