Sivut kuvina


Four days encamped where Delhi's* ruins Matured in dulness by experience long, crave

And perfect in the knack of doing wrong, A pitying sigh to splendour in its grave, What man with temper cast in happiest Within the walls he never cares to trace

mould The faded brilliancy of Timur's race ; But gives his tongue free liberty to scold? Nor, if he treads the Musjud'st marbled A. Yet spare the hand; nor let impatience

(door ;

(take, Marks the grand archway o'er the brazen With rage or sourness o'er each slight misStill less can feel, of Indian cities sick, Lest, much indulged, as evishnees takes A taste for mouldering piles of broken root,

(man brute, brick.

Frowns, oaths, and blows bespeak the huOf Agra’s Tarze what matters it to know? A cruel coward, venting passion's fit “ They say 't is noble, and it may be so; On trembling servants, patient to submit, But give me, gods ! to catch, in spacious And shunned by those whose better natent,


ture* fears My hookah's breath, and chillum’s grateful Days of harsh servitude, and long arrears. And, valaing stations more for meats than B. Oh for an English John, a coutry stones,


[once, Prefer good feeds to any royal bones !”

Whose busy hands do twenty things at
Who feels no sad compunction of remorse

To wait at table, or to clean a horse ;

Who pleads no cast, a frivolous excuse,

Nor thinks the worst of ills to be of use! (From the same.)

Yet sweet, ah sweet, on sofa's length to A. You rise, no doubt, in irritable plight,

loll, And suffering servants pay for every bite :

While zeal officious treats you as a doll !Theirs is the luck in dumb surprise to list

A. In Lethe's stream how deeply has he Your broken jargon, and to feel your fist;

sought Cuffed here, kicked there, the pond'ring

A long oblivion of all English thought, blockhead reels,


Who loves the swarms that round the And scarcely knows his headpiece from his

[ness ; B. What, when all dressing order they

And paw the torpid limbs of helplessinvert,

Be his the lot accursed in glass to view First handing you a waistcoat, then a shirt,

The sallow glories of a bilious hue ; In the same hose your legs and arms would

In his wan cheek no healthy redness glow, shove,

But well-scratched bumps attest the nightAnd scarcely know a stocking from a glove:

Iy foe! When steeped in bang, $ till, wonderfully

Him did a land, a happy land produce, bright,

Where, Gothic notion! limbs are thought Their wits three sable loggerheads unite, • The environs of this celebrated city suggest

Where the same hand, unaided and alone, the most humiliating reflections on the frailty of (So much the body boasts a manly tone,) all human grandeur. The interior, like all other Indian cities, contains a striking medley of mag

Strange to assert, can properly arrange nificence and wretcheduless. If the latter predo. The parts component of a daily change ! minates, there is still much to attract and gratify curiosity. Old Bernier, in 1663, wrote, “ C'est à raison de ces misérables maisons de terre et de

leaf of a species of wild hemp, are—" to confound paille, que je ne considère presque Dehli, que

the understanding, set the imagination looge, and comme plusieurs villages joints ensemble." Sce

induce a kind of folly and forgetfulness." With

this common stimulant, the native servants are page 18. † The grand mosque, which is the great orna

too apt to fortify themselves against the cares and ment of the city.

calamities of servitude. * On the first establishment of a young man in * Servants of real utility and intelligence will India, some allowances ought to be inade for the seldom be found in the establishment of a harsh, unfortunate domestics, whose ill fate it is to be capricious, and tyrannical master. The scum and taxed with a greater portion of stupidity than ac rcfuse of India will endure much for a livelihood : tually oppresses them. When the master is unin

but as a native of any respectability expects to be telligible, are the servants likely to be unperplexed ? treated as a human being, he naturally shuns a

9 The effecto of bang, a preparation from the service of violence and cruelty.

toilet press,

of use ;


An Account of the Kingdom of sions of the most splendid ad

Canbul, and its Dependencies in ditions to European knowledge. In Persia, Tartary, and India; com- this place, it would be tedious to prising a View of the Afghaun recall, in support of the last obserNation, and a History of the vation, the titles of the many and Dooraunee Monarchy. By the able works with which the writers Hon. Mountstuart Elphinstone, alluded to have enriched the circle of the Hon. East-India Com- of literature, and among which the pany's Service, Resident at the volume before us commands no Court of Poona, and late Envoy middling place. But it is imposto the King of Caubul. Royal sible to sit down to the commence4to. pp. 675. Price £3. 38. ment of a review of English pubLongman and Co. London, 1815. lications relating to Asia, without

If there ever was a period of recollecting the distinguished rank British Indian history, the features to which, among the productions of of which could justify the reproach our press, this class of books has of the orator, that posterity would long since attained; without advertbe able to discern no traces of our ing, in mental excursion, to the list dominion in Asia, other than would of those, which, even within a have been left by the tiger and oran recent portion of time, have apotang,* that period has, at least, peared; and without exultingly anfound its termination ; a govern- ticipating, from the names of those, ment orderly, mild, conciliatory, who, by their past labours have and even paternal, is extended over given promise of their future, and the millions of subjects who have who still live to do honour to themfallen under our sway; splendid selves and their country, a succesmonuments of our arts have been

sion of articles to embellish and raised in the cities of which we

enrich this department of the Asias have become the masters institu

TIC JOURNAL. tions of learning have been found

The kingdom of Cabul, of which ed, and have prospered, in settle- Mr. Elphinstone's work professes ments which pretend to no higher

to contain an account, is--in the purposes than those of commerce,

understanding of the author, and and amid the distractions of po- probably in the colloquial language litics, the bustle of arms, and the of British India, that country which fatigues of judicial duties; and, has hitherto been described in our the intellectual boutis which have books as the empire of the Afghans, shown themselves scattered, with and of which empire the province no sparing hand, among the civil or vice-royalty of Cabul is, in and military servants of the Com- reality, an integral but diminutive pany, have rendered our

portion. The attention which we reignty and our traffic on the banks shall pay to this work will suffiof the Indus and the Ganges,

occa- ciently evince the value we set on Edmund Burke,

it, and our extracts will more than Asiatic Journ.-No. 1.

Vol, I.




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justify the respect with which it will accurate expression of Asiatic sounds, thus be seen to inspire us ; but, to

and which is also by far the most geneavoid that confusion which attends

rally current in India; but as it is little

known in Europe, I have given a table an unsettled use and reception of

of the powers it assigns to the letters; words and names, (a confusion which will enable the reader to prowhich it is a writer's first interest

nounce all the words where it is made to avoid, and a critic's first duty to use of.* I myself used no particular al. detect, reprove, and remove), we

phabet, but endeavoured to express all

words in our letters without altering the do not hesitate to begin our mi

sounds which they usually have in Ennuter observations by finding fault

glish. This plan, however, has led to with the very


e-page, and by some inconvenience, for, as I was guided endeavouring to assist the reader, entirely by my ear, and as the same by aid of explanations, more con sounds can be expresssd by different letveniently to connect the informa. ters, there was nothing to fix the scheme

I had adopted in my memory; and, in tion he is to derive from the


consequence, when a word recurred after Mr. E. with that which he has pre

a long interval, 1 frequently changed the viously obtained from earlier au

spelling without designing it. This evil thors. We have in view, particu was increased by the many interruptions larly, the substitution, as we con I was exposed to, which at different times sider it, of the words “ Kingdom

obliged me to suspend my proceedings of Caubul aud its Dependencies,” tempts to reconcile the inconsistencies

for many months together; and my atfor the “ Empire of the Afghans," thus produced, have rather increased or for “ Afghanistan and its Depen- than removed the confusion. The most dencies ;'* and the words “ Doo material words, however, are pretty uniraunee Monarchy,” for the older formly spelled, and I hope no great em

barrassment will arise from the irreguand not less accurate denomination

larity of the others. of " Abdalli.” We'add,

at the

Taking, then, the phrase of the same time, that we shall not, in

“ Kingdom of Caubul" as equithe course of our remarks, follow valent, in the understanding of the new orthography of Mr. E.; a

Mr. E. to that of the “ Kingdom" subject this, however, on which,

or Empire of the Afghans" (and, while we reserve to ourselves the if our preference of the latter phrase privilege of saying a few words be- required support, we have only to fore we close our account of his

turn over the title-page of Mr. E. book, it is but just to cite, in this

and observe, that in the titles given place, the candid acknowledgments to four out of the five books into which the author has not omitted to

# Dr. Gilchrist has given the following table make :

for the vowels, each of which is invariably to be I have a few words to say on the spells pronounced as it is in the English words written ing of the proper names. It is always

Ball Sun There Beer Bill Poll Poor Our Dry. difficult to represent Asiatic words in our

Ou Y. characters, and this is increased in the The consonants are, I believe, pronounced as in

English, except C and G, which are always hard. present instance by the want of a uni

The signs Gh and Kh are added, and represent, form system. Lieut. Macartney had the first, the sound of the Persian Ghine, which adopted Dr. Gilchrist's orthography, is nearly the same as a Northumberland man

would give to R; and the second represents the which is perhaps the best extant for the

Persian Khe, and has a resemblance to the Scot.

tish and Irish ch in loch (a lake). It is to be * Peshawer, the Royal city at which Mr. E. observed, that when a consonant is repeated it is found the king, is situate in Afghanistan itself, to be pronounced double. Thus dd is not to be or Afghanistan Proper, said to be called by the pronounced singly as in paddock, but doubly as natives Pokhtunkha.

in mad-dog.

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which his work is divided, as well in longitude 62°, to the eastern boundary as those of an infinity of chapters of Cashmeer in longitude 77° east, and contained in them, the name of from the mouth of the Indus, in latitude

24', to the Oxus, in latitude, 37° north. “ Caubul” scarcely occars, while

The whole space included between every thing is made to belong to the those lines of latitude and longitude, does Afghauns," Afghaunistaun," not belong to the King of Caubul, and it and the “ Afghaun nation,") we

will hereafter appear, that of those which

may be considered as annexed to his may quote, as preliminary informa

crown, many owe him but a nominal tion for the reader, Mr. E.'s ac

obedience. count of the situation and boun

This kingdom is bounded on the east daries of the country of which we by Hindostan, in which it however comare to speak, described in the work prehends Cashmeer, and the countries on itself, (though the terms are imme

the left bank of the Indus. On the south diately changed in the text,) as the

it may be coarsely said to have the Per

sian gulph ; and on the west, a desart " situation and boundaries of Afg. extends along the whole of the frontiers. baunistaun.” Previous writers have Its northern frontier is formed by the told us, that Afghanistan may be mountains of the eastern Caucasus, which reckoned, from N. to S. at three are, however, included within the weshundred and fifty miles in length ; by the Oxus.

tern part of the boundary there formed and, from E. to W. counting west

According to the nomenclature of our ward from the Indus, at three hun latest maps,* it comprehends Afghaudred miles in average breadth : nistaun and Segistan, with part of KhoIt is difficult to fix the limits of the

rasan and of Makran; Balk, with Tokingdom of Caubul. The countries under

karestaun and Kilan; Kuttore, Caubul, the sovereignty of the King of Cau

Candahar, Sindy, and Cashmeer; tobul once extended sixteen degrees in

gether with a portion of Lahore, and the longitude, from Sirhind, about one hun

greater part of Moultan. dred and fifty miles from Delly, to Mesh

Further on :hed, about an equal distance from the I am now enabled to describe the comCaspian sea. In breadth they reached plicated limits of the country of the Affrom the Oxus to the Persian gulph, a ghauns. On the north, it has Hindoo space including thirteen degrees of lati. Coosh, and the Paropamisan range. The tude, or nine hundred and ten miles. Indus is its boundary on the east, as long

But this great empire has, of late, suf as that river continues near the hills ; fered a considerable diminution, and the that is, as far as lat. 32° 20'. The plain distracted state of the government pre on the right bank of the Indus, south of vents the King's exercising authority even lat. 32° 20', is inhabited by Beloches ; over several of the countries which are

but the chain of Solimaun, with its substill included in his dominions. In this

ordinate ranges, and the country immeuncertainty I shall adopt the test made diately at their base, belongs to the use of by the Asiatics themselves, and Afghauns. The hills, which have been shall consider the King's sovereignty as mentioned, as bounding Seeweestaun on extending over all the countries in which the north, form the southern limits of the • Khootba is read, and the money the country of the Afghauns. The Afcoined in his name.

ghaun country immediately to the north In this view the present kingdom of of these mountains, does not at first exCaubul extends from the west of Heraut

tend so far west as to reach the Table land

of Kelauto; but it afterwards shoots past • The Khootba is a part of the Mahommedan service, in which the Kiag of the country is

it on the north, and reaches to the desart, prayed for. Inserting a prince's name in the

which is its north-western boundary. It Khootba, and inscribing it on the current coin, is difficult to render this irregular boundary are reckoned in the East the most certain acknowledgments of sovereignty.

Arrowsmith's Asia, 1801,

intelligible; but, it is still more so to give desarts were excluded; no greater rate in a general description, a notion of the of population than one hundred to the countries which it comprehends. They square mile, was allowed to any large are so various in their level, climate, soil, tract except Cashmeer, and sometimes and productions, that I shall not attempt (as in the whole country of the Hazaurehs) at present to distinguish them ; but, shall only eight souls were allowed to the only remark, that the whole of Afghau- square mile. nistaun, west of the range of Solimaun, The different nations who inhabit the is a table land, lying higher than most kingdom of Caubul were supposed to of the neighbouring countries. Hindoo contribute to the population in the folCoosh, which is its northern bulwark, lowing proportions : looks down on the low lands of Bulkh. Afghauns

4,300,000 On the east, it is equally elevated above Beloches *

. 1,000,000 the still lower plain of the Indus. On Tartars of all descriptions *..1,200,000 the south, it overlooks Seeweestaun; Persians (including Taujiks) .. 1,500,000 and, the deep valley of Bolaun, on the Indians (Cashmeeres, Juts, &c.) 5,700,000 south-west, runs between it and Belo Miscellaneous tribes

300,000 chistaun. On the west, indeed, it slopes

It was to the sovereign of this gradually down to the desart ; and, on the north-west, it loses its appearance of empire that Mr. E. was sent on elevation before the Paropamisan moun

that public mission which has given tains. The table land of Kelaut, ought existence to the volume under reperhaps to be considered as a continuation view. The occasion and composiof that I have just described ; but, the tion of the embassy, the names of low country, extending to the desart, and the officers who accompanied it, the valley of Belaun, so nearly divide

the date of its departure from Delhi, them that it will be convenient to treat them as separate. The Afghauns have and the limits and agricultural ase no general name for their country; but, pect of the British possessions westthat of Afghaunistaun, which was pro- ward of that city, are all concisely bably first employed in Persia, is frequent stated in the extract which follows, ly used in books, and is not unknown to

and which comprehends the initial the inhabitants of the country to which it applies. I shall, therefore, use it in paragraphs of Mr. E's “ Introduc. future to express the country, of which I tion," or narrative of the journey have just described the limits. As much performed ; an interesting though of the Afghaun country as lies to the brief division of the work, through west of the parallel of Mookloor, in which we shall next follow the suclongitude 68° 30', is included in the ce

cessive steps of the party :lebrated and extensive province of KhoThe remaining part of Kho

In the year 1808, when, from the emrassaun, (the boundaries of which may

bassy of General Gardanne to Persia, and be loosely fixed by the Oxus, and the

other circumstances, it appeared as if the desart, through which that river runs ;

French intended to carry the war into the Salt Desart; and the Caspian Sea), Asia, it was thought expedient by the

British Government in India to send a belongs to Persia. Kermaun is said to have been once included in Khorassaun,

mission to the King of Caubul, and I was as Seeweestaun frequently is still.

ordered on that duty. As the court of

Caubul was known to be haughty, and To the above is to be added an

supposed to entertain a mean opinion of estimate of the population :

the European nations, it was determined The whole population of the kingdom that the mission should be in a style of cannot be under fourteen millions. This great magnificence; and suitable preparawas the number fixed by one of the gen

tions were made at Delly for its equiptlemen of the mission, on a calculation

An excellent selection was made of the extent and comparative population

* I conceive the Beloches and Tartars to be of the different provinces. All extensive much under-rated in this table.



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