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so much of it as is to be taken up in works of necessity and mercy (c) in the public and private exercises of God's worship (d): and, to that end, we are to prepare our hearts, and with such foresight, diligence, and moderation, to dispose, and seasonably to dispatch our worldly business, that we may be the more free and fit for the duties of that day (e).

Q. 118. Why is the charge of keeping the Sabbath more specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors ?

A. The charge of keeping the Sabbath is more specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors, because they are bound not only to keep it themselves, but to see that it be observed by all those that are under their charge ; and because they are prone ofttimes to hinder them by employments of their own (f).

(c) Mat. 12, from verse 1 to ed, and prepared spices and oint13. At that time Jesus went on ments; and rested the Sabbaththe Sabbath-day through the corn, day, according to the commande and his disciples were an hunger- ment. Exod. 16. 22. And it ed, and began to pluck the ears of came to pass, that on the sixth day corn, and to eat. v. 2. But when they gathered twice as much the Pharisees saw it, &c.

bread, two omers for one man : (d) Isa. 58. 13. If thou turn and all the rulers of the congreaway thy foot from the Sabbath, gation came and told Moses. from doing thy pleasure on my (f) Jer. 17. 20-22. And holy day, and call the Sabbath a say unto them, Hear ye the word delight, the holy of the Lord, of the Lord, ye kings of Judah, honourable, and shalt hoyour him, and all Judah, and all the inhabitnot doing thine own ways, nor ants of Jerusalem, that enter in finding thine own pleasure, nor by these gates. Jer. 17. 21, 22. speaking thine own words. Luke Thus saith the Lord, Take heed 4. 16. And he came to Nazareth, to yourselves, and bear no burden where he had been brought up : on the Sabbath-day, nor bring it and, as his custom was, he went in by the gates of Jerusalem. into the synagogue on the Sab- Neither carry forth a burden ont bath-day, and stood up for to read. of your house on the Sabbath-day, Acts 20. 7. And upon the first neither do ye any work, but halday of the week, when the disci- low ye the Sabbath-day, as I comples came together to break bread, manded your fathers. Exod. 23. Paul preached unto them, ready 12. Six days thou shalt do thy to depart on the morrow.

work, and on the seventh day (e) Exod. 20. 8. Remember thou shalt rest : that thine ox an the Sabbath-day, to keep it holy. thine ass may rest : and the son Luke 23. 54. 56. And that day of thy hand-maid, and the stranwas the preparation, and the Sab- ger may be refreshed. bath drew on. And they return

Q. 119. What are the sins forbidden in the fourth com. mandment ?

A. The sins forbidden in the fourth commandment are, all omissions of the duties required (g), all careless, negligent, and unprofitable performing of them, and being weary of them (h); all profaning the day by idleness, and doing that which is in itself sinful (i): and by all needless works, words, and thoughts, about our worldly employments and recreations (k). .. Q. 120. What are the reasons annexed to the fourth commandment, the more to enforce it ?

A. The reasons annexed to the fourth commandment. the more to enforce it, are taken from the equity of it, God allowing us six days of seven for our own affairs, and reserving but one for himself, in these words, six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy works (1): from God's challenging a special propriety in that day, The seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God (m): from the example of God, who in six days made hearen and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: and from that blessing which God put upon that day, not only in sanctifying it to be a day for his service, but in ordaining it to be a means of blessing to us in our

(9) Ezek. 22. 26. Her priests the lame, and the sick ; thus ye have violated my law, and have brought an offering : should I acprophaned mine holy things: they cept this of your hands ? saith have put no difference between the Lord. the holy and profane, neither have ri Ezek. 23. 38. Moreover, they shewed difference between this they have done unto me : the unclean and the clean, and they have defiled my sanctuary have hid their eyes from my Sab- in the same day, and have probaths, and I am profaned among faned my Sabbaths. them.

(k) Isa. 58. 13. If thou turn (h) Amos 8. 5. Saying, When away thy foot from the Sabbath, will the new moon be gone, that from doing thy pleasure on my we may sell corn! and the Sab- holy day, and call the Sabbath a bath, that we may set forth wheat, delight, the holy of the Lord, making the ephah small, and the honourable ; and shalt honour shekel great, and falsifying the bim, not doing thine own ways, balances by deceit ? Mal. 1. 13. nor finding thine own pleasure, Ye said also, Behold, what a weari. nor speaking thine own words. ness is it ! and ye have snuffed at (1) Exodus 20. 9 it, saith the Lord of hosts: and ye (m) Exodus 20, 10. brought that which was torn, and

sanctifying it; Wherefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath-day and hallowed it (n).

Q. 121. Why is the word Remember set in the beginuing of the fourth commandment ?

A. The word Remember is set in the beginning of the fourth commandment (0), partly because of the great benefit of remembering it, we being thereby helped in our preparation to keep it (P), and, in keeping it, better to keep all the rest of the commandments (9), and to continue a thankful remembrance of the two great benefits of creation and redemption, which contain a short abridg. ment of religion (r); and partly because we are very ready to forget it (), for that there is less light of nature for it (t), and yet it restraineth our natural liberty in things ( 12 ) Exodus 20. 11.

sanctified it: because that in it he ro) Exodus 20. 8.

had rested from all his work, cp) Mark 15. 42. And now which God created and made. when the even was come, because Psal. 118. 22. 24. The stone which it was the preparation, that is, the the builders refused, is become day before the Sabbath. Neh. 13. the head-stone of the corner. This 19. And it came to pass, that is the day which the Lord hath when the gates of Jerusalem be- made, we will rejoice and be glad gan to be dark before the Sabbath, in it. Compared with Acts 4. 10, I commanded that the gates should 11. Be it known unto you all, be shut, and charged that they and to all the people of Israel, should not be opened till after the that by the name of Jesus Christ Sabbath : and some of my ser. of Nazareth, whom ye crucified, vants set I at the gates, that there whom God raised from the dead, shonld no burden be brought in even by him doth this man stand on the Sabbath-day.

here before you whole. This (9) Ezekiel 20. 12. 19, 20. is the stone which was set at Moreover also, I gave them my nought of you builders, which is Sabbaths, to be a sign between become the head of the corner, me and them, that they might Rev. 1. 10. I was in the Spirit on know that I am the Lord that the Lord's day, and heard behind sanctify them. I am the Lord me a great voice, as of a trumpet. your God; walk in my statutes, (8) Ezek. 22. 26. Her priests and keep my judgments, and do have violated my law, and have them. And hallow my Sabbaths; profaned mine holy things : they and they shall be a sign between have put no difference between me and you, that ye may know the holy and profane, neither have that I am the Lord your God. they shewed difference between

(r) Gen. 2. 2, 3. And on the the unclean and the clean, and serenth day God ended his work bave hid their eyes from my Saba which he had made: and he rest- baths, and I am profaned among ed on the seventh day from all them. his work which he had made. And rt) Neh. 9. 14. And madest God blessed the seventh day, and known unto them thy holy Sab

at other times lawful (v); that it cometh but once in seven days, and many worldly businesses come between, and too often take off our minds from thinking of it, either to prepare for it, or to sanctify it (w); and that Satan with his instruments much labours to blot out the glory, and even the memory of it, to bring in all irreligion and impiety (x)

Q. 122. What is the sum of the six commandments which contain our duty lo man?

A. The sum of the six commandments which contain our duty to man, is to love our neighbour as ourselves (y), and to do to others what we would have them to do to

Q. 123. Which is the fifth commandment ? A. The fifth commandment is, Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee (a).

Q. 124. Iho are meant by father and mother in the fifth commandment ?

4. By father and mother, in the fifth commandment, are meant not only natural parents (b), but all superiors

bath, and commandest them pre- Thus saith the Lord, take heed cepts, statutes, and laws, by the to yourselves, and bear no burden hand of Moses thy servant. on the Sabbath-day, nor bring it

(0) Exod. 34. 21. Six days in by the gates of Jerusalem. thou shalt work, but on the (y) Matthew 22. 39. And the seventh day thou shalt rest : in second is like unto it, Thou shalt caring-time, and in harvest thou love thy neighbour as thyself. shalt rest.

(z) Nat. 7, 12. Therefore all (2) Amos 8. 5. Saying, When things whatsoever ye would that will the new moon be gone, that men should do to you, do ve even we may sell corn ? and the Sab. so to them : for this is the law and bath, that we may set forth wheat, the prophets. - making the ephah small, and the (a) Exodus 20. 12.

shekel great, and falsifying the (6) Prov. 23. 22. 25. Hearken balances by deceit ?

unto thy father that begat thee, (2) Lan. 1. 7. Jerusalem and despise not thy mother when remembered in the days of her she is old. Thy father and thy affliction, and of her miseries, all mother shall be glad, and she that her pleasant things that she had bare thee shall rejoice, Eph. 6. in the days of old, when her peo- 1,2 Children, obey your parents ple fell into the land of the ene- in the Lord : for this is right. mny, and none dkd help her; the Honour thy father and mother, adversaries saw her, and did mock (which is the first commandment ther Sabbaths, Jeremiah 17. 21. with promise.)

in age (c), and gifts (d); and especially such as, by God's ordinance, are over us in place of authority, whether in family (e), church (s), or commonwealth (g).

Q. 125. Why are superiors styled Father and Mother?

A. Superiors are styled Father and Mother, both to teach them in all duties towards their inferiors, like natural parents, to express love and tenderness to them, according to their several relations (h); and to work infe riors to a greater willingness and cheerfulness in performing their duties to their superiors, as to their parents (i).

Q. 126. What is the general scope of the fifth commandment?

A. The general scope of the fifth commandment, is the performance of those duties which we mutually owe in our several relations, as inferiors, superiors, or equals (k).

Q. 127. What is the honour that inferiors one to their superiors?

A. The honour which inferiors owe to their superiors,

(c) 1 Tim. 5. 1, 2. Rebuke the nurture and admonition of not an elder, but entreat him as the Lord. 2 Cor. 12. 14. For a father, and the younger men as the children ought not to lay up brethren : The elder women as for the parents, but the parents mothers, the younger as sisters, for the children. 1 Thes. 2. 7, 8. with all purity.

But we were gentle among you, (d) Gen. 4. 20. And Adah even as a nurse cherisheth her bare Jabal : he was the father of children. So, being affectionately such as dwell in tents, and of such desirous of you, we were willing as have cattle.

to have imparted unto you, not (e) 2 Kings 5., 13. And his the gospel of God only, but also servants came near, and spake our own souls, because ye were unto him, and said, My father, if dear unto us. the prophet had bid thee do some (i) 1 Cor. 4. 14. 16. I write great thing, wouldest thou not not these things to shame you, but have done it? how much rather as my beloved sons I warn you. then, when he saith to thee, For though you have ten thousand Wash and be clean?

instructors in Christ, yet have (f) 2 Kings 2. 12. And Eli- not many fathers : for in Christ sha saw it, and he cried, My fa- Jesus I have begotten you through ther, my father, the chariot of Is- the gospel. rael, and the horsemen thereof. (k) Eph. 5. 21. Submitting

(8) Isaiah 49. 23. And kings. yourselves one to another in the shall be thy nursing-fathers, and fear of God. 1 Peter 2. 17. Hon. their queens.thy nursing-mothers. our all men. Love the brother.

(h) Eph. 6. 4. And ye fa- hood. Fear God. Honour the thers, provoke not your children King. Romans 12. 10. Be kindly to wraih ; but bring them up in affectioned one to another, with


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