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It will also be seen that little progress was made in the manufacturing of cotton in England, until the year 1782, when the imports for the whole of that year were 33,225 bales; spinning machinery being at this period in its infancy. When we contemplate the present extent of the manufacture of cotton, the rapid stride it has made seems almost incredible. Not more than seventy years have elapsed since England's first profitable acquaintance with the cotton manufacture. In the year 1781, the quantity of cotton wool imported, was only 14,603 bales; but in 1845, it amounted to the enormous number of 1,855,660 bales, being 127 times as much as in the former year. In fact, our weekly consumption in 1846, was more than double the whole import of the year 1781. How deeply must the importance and magnitude of British enterprise and industry, and the power of man over the means of production, be impressed upon our minds, when we consider, that although so many centuries have passed since cotton was known in the East, and that within so short a period, (less than 100 years,) we were indebted to that distant country for both our goods and yarn. Yet have the exports in yarn and calicoes to India alone, during the last year, amounted to the enormous quantities of 20,500,000 lbs. of yarn, and to upwards of 196,000,000 yards of calicoes, and that it has been reserved to these times, to send out persons of first-rate ability, and at considerable expense, to induce the natives, (or, as may be said, the parents of the trade,) to increase and improve their cultivation, in order to aid in supplying that want of raw material, which the more modern gigantic efforts, and almost incredible progress of the United States of North America, do not satisfy.

It is an undeniable fact that the cotton trade is much larger in amount than all the other descriptions of clothing. Notwithstanding its enormous extent, however, it has ever been, and will continue to be, more materially and suddenly affected by current fluctuations than any other of our domestic fabrics. Some idea of the vast importance of this portion of British commerce, may be formed from the following statement :

The value of the whole export of British and Irish produce and manufactures, for the last three years, has been as follows:

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so that one-half the value of all our exports consists of cotton manufactures, and not more than one-third or one-fourth of this large amount arises from the cost of the raw material, which England pays to foreigners; so that the remainder is annually enriching the country, through the skill and labor of her manufacturers and factory operatives.

In reference to the embellishment of cotton goods, the principal features are printing and dyeing, the art of which had also been long known in the East, previous to its introduction into England, in 1675. In the year 1690, it was commenced on the banks of the Thames, near London, but the goods there printed were confined to muslins and calicoes imported from India. In 1700, an act was passed, (as an encouragement to the trade of Great Britain,) forbidding the sale or use of foreign printed goods, and this branch of her trade has also been further protected by

several subsequent acts, as in 1782, prohibiting the exportation of any materials used in printing, etc.; and in 1783, giving bounties on the export of British printed goods; and several other acts were enacted on the same principle, until 1787, when an excise duty of 31d. per square yard was imposed upon all printed cottons, but the same was allowed as a drawback when exported; this act was wholly repealed in the year 1831. The following tables show that the export of printed goods bear a very disproportionate amount to that of plain calicoes, as in 1846, the amount of the former was only 267,000,000 yards, while that of the latter was 619,000,000 yards.

The five following tables exhibit at one view, in progressive order, the quantity of yarn, thread, calicoes printed, calicoes plain, and cambrics, exported to the different parts of the globe, from the year 1831 to 1846, both inclusive. I have selected these as being the most important articles; the others, though always published in my Commercial Glance, such as dimities, etc., would so seriously have increased the extent of this article, that I have found it necessary to omit them-and in the next table, (No. 6,) I have given the annual total amount of these and every other description of cotton goods exported since the year 1829. I may here remark, that this is the commencement of the Commercial Glance; but the two first numbers are unfortunately out of print, and I have consequently been compelled to commence particularizing the quantities sent to each place in the before-mentioned tables, from 1831. To the first table, there are several notes appended, which will also apply to the five following:

COTTON YARN EXPORTED FROM GREAT BRITAIN.

TABLE SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF COTTON YARN, IN POUNDS, EXPORTED TO THE UNDERMENTIONED PLACES IN THE FOLLOWING YEARS.

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* Previous to the year 1834, Belgium and Holland were entered under one head. From the year 1835 to 1844, the exports to Brazil and Buenos Ayres were entered under one head. Previous to the year 1838, Hanover and Hanse Towns were entered under one head. Previous to the year 1844, the exports to India and China were entered under one head.

TABLE OF COTTON YARN EXPORTED FROM GREAT BRITAIN-CONTINUED.

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TABLE OF COTTON YARN EXPORTED FROM GREAT BRITAIN-CONTINued.

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Total........

82,457,385 85,195,702 105,106,529 113,753,197

TABLE OF COTTON YARN exported FROM GREAT BRITAIN-CONTINUED.

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TABLE OF COTTON YARN EXPORTED FROM GREAT BRITAIN-CONTINUED.

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TABLE OF COTTON YARN EXPORTED FROM GREAT BRITAIN-CONTINUED.

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TABLE OF COTTON YARN EXPORTED FROM GREAT BRITAIN-CONTINUED.

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TABLE SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF COTTON THREAD, IN POUNDS, EXPORTED TO THE UNDERMENTIONED PLACES IN THE FOLLOWING YEARS.

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