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would be destroyed ; but that, at that great day, “ whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord (that is, all the Christians) shall be saved ;" that is, delivered from those calamities to which their Jewish neighbours would be exposed. And we know that such proved to be the case ; for when Titus, with his destroying army, approached the city, the Christians, in consequence of the warnings given to them by Christ and the apostles, fled to Pella, a town at a little distance, and were thereby rescued from destruction ; whilst the Jews, who persisted in remaining in the town to the last, were barbarously slaughtered.
Again, we are informed that Paul and Silas, on one occasion, were imprisoned at Philippi for healing a woman that had a spirit of divipation ; that during the night they prayed and sang praises to God; in consequence of which the Almighty sent a great earthquake, which burst open the prison doors and loosed them from their bands. The gaoler who had charge of them, being suddenly aroused from his sleep, seeing the marvellous things that had happened, and being naturally and justly alarmed for his own fate, said to them, “Sirs, what must I do to be saved ?” that is, from the effects of the earthquake ; for it was for his own security that he was now frightened, lest he and his family should be crushed beneath the ruins. To which inquiry the apostles immediately replied, “ Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house." As if they had said to him, become a Christian, cease your persecution of us, liberate us from our bonds, and then God will save you and your household from that imminent peril in which you are now placed. And we find that such was the case ; for, upon the gaoler becoming a Christian, and treating the apostles with civility, the earthquake was stayed. In these passages you must perceive that the word denotes salvation from temporal calamities.
But, 4th, It sometimes means conversion from Judaism and heathenism to Christianity.
Paul, in writing to the church at Rome (Rom. x. 1), says, “ Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved;" that is, converted to Christianity. In like manner, in the same Epistle, he tells the Gentile converts that, though the Jews are at present excluded from the Christian church, their rejection is neither total nor final ; but that at last “all Israel shall be saved ;” meaning thereby, that when the fulness of the Gentiles shall come in, then shall all the children of Israel be restored to their former privileges, and gathered into the fold of the Redeemer.
Again. Our Saviour, on one occasion, was pointing out to his disciples the difficulties that lay in the way of men's becoming Christians : above all, that the rich would be peculiarly unwilling to make the sacrifices which Christianity would require of them ; upon which the disciples immediately asked him, "who, then, can be saved ?"Matt. xix. 25. As if they had said, if the persecutions and losses to which converts will be exposed are so great as you represent them to be, what rich man is there that will consent to become a Christian?
In all these passages, to be "saved” evidently means salvation from Jewish superstition and heathen idolatry.
After a careful examination of all these portions of Scripture, I think I am warranted in repeating the statement with which I commenced, viz. that the salvation which is promised as the consequence of mere belief is, in every case, temporal and not eternal ; it is salvation from certain evils in this world, and not salvation to everlasting life. To be “ saved,” and to “ inherit eternal life,” are two very different matters, and are obtained on very different terms. When any one asked, “what shall I do to be saved ?" the answer returned was, “ believe ;" but, when any one asked, “ what shall I do to inherit eternal life,” the answer returned was, “if you will enter into life, keep the commandments.” The former being temporal, is obtained on the grounds of faith alone, but the latter being eternal, requires good works in addition.
I had hoped, at the commencement of this paper, to have been able to point out the real and acquired meaning of the word “justified ;" but I find that, as I have already exceeded the space usually allotted to a single article in this magazine, I must defer its consideration.
Before concluding, I would request all who may read the foregoing observations, to examine into the subjects, here imperfectly discussed, more fully for themselves. I am aware that several of my explanations of Holy Writ may, to many, appear new and strange ; but I have not put them forward without due deliberation and research ; and I trust they will be found to stand the test of Scripture criticism.
CHORUS OF DISCIPLES,
His mission done, the buried One
Has gone, in peerless pride,
By his Great Father's side.
To whom he was so dear,
To mourn his absence here,
CHORUS OF ANGELS.
Rejoice! ye sons of men, rejoice!
Awake the choral strain !
Has broken his death-chain;
that followed him with love,
Shall meet him in the skies.
OUTLINES OF THE HISTORY OF PRESBYTERIANISM, IN
BY THE REV, H. MONTGOMERY, LL.D.
( Continued from page 126, No. IV.) Nothing could have been more worthy of Christian men, than the conduct of the Ulster Presbyterians, during the persecutions to which I have referred. Although driven from their churches and deprived of their faithful ministers, they neither conformed to a religion which they disapproved, nor“ forsook the assembling of themselves together.” On the contrary, they kept entirely aloof from the worship and ordinances of the Prelatical church ; and regularly met, in private houses, on the Lord's Day, and frequently during the week, for the purpose of engaging in religious exercises. On these occasions, as in the apostolic times, the entire assembly joined in praise ; some venerable layman conducted their devotions, and others expounded a portion of the Sacred volume. This being done, the older and more enlightened members occupied some time in edifying conversation ; pointing out especially the purity of their faith and worship, the importance of brotherly affection and co-operation, and the necessity of a steady adherence to principle. Thus, in the midst of perils and privations, did they continue to cherish a more ardent attachment to their own persecuted faith, and a more intense abhorrence of the church and characters of their persecutors ; so that, in point of fact, Presbyterianism only struck its roots the more deeply
into the affections of the people, in proportion to the violence of the storms by which its branches were assailed. Indeed, it is amazing, how much greater value the majority of men attach to their privileges, when compelled to maintain them in the midst of trials, than they do when permitted to enjoy them in the midst of security and repose. Our venerated ancestors crowded into private dwellings, and often raised their solemn hymns of praise under the dark canopy of night; whilst in our own days of liberty, and peace, and religious encouragement, some of their descendants never enter the House of the Living God, and multitudes are found to be only occasional and careless worshippers ! Two short years ago, all the liberal Presbyterians of Ireland were up in arms, for the honourable defence of their religious properties, against unjust aggressions ; and, yet, how many of those who were the most zealous and liberal-handed, on that occasion, seldom darken the pors of those very Temples which have been secured to them by the justice of man and the Providence of God! In days of darkness and amidst scenes of peril, our honest and intrepid progenitors“ prayed to their Father in secret,” rather than join in public acts of devotion opposed to the convictions of their minds and the sentiments of their hearts, whilst in our own days of light and security, thousands of Unitarian Christians, from mere local convenience, or the baser motive of worldly conformity, habitually carry their families into Trinitarian and Calvinistic Temples, where almost the entire service is at variance with their own views of God's eternal truth! In many things, no doubt, we are greatly superior to our ancestors; but, uuhappily, religious integrity, that first of virtues, is not amongst the number. It is highly probable, that, were we exposed to persecution, we should be more faithful to our principles; and, yet, is it not melancholy, that the very plenitude of God's kindness should lessen the gratitude of our hearts and the sincerity of our worship!
So much did the Christian firmness and integrity of our worthy forefathers alarm and exasperate the haughty Strafford, that he determined on the adoption of more efficacious measures ' for the *up-rooting of their stiff-necked Presbyterianism." He had banished their clergy, confiscated the estates and imprisoned the bodies of their gentry, and compelled the great mass of the people to take an infamous oath-yet he did not feel secure. The low and solemn swell of their Psalms, sounded in his ears like the indignant growl of a coming tempest; and their peaceful assemblings for worship appeared to his eyes as the embryo musterings of warlike hosts. He, therefore, having no means of imprisoning a whole people, planned the gigantic scheme of expelling all the Scotch colonists from the country: and, this project, he would doubtless have attempted to
execute, had not some of his more moderate Irish counsellors warned him of the danger of driving a resolute population to despair ; and had not the king expressed his conviction, that such an attempt against their countrymen, in Ireland, would rouse the Scotch into a fresh rebellion, and thereby jeopardize his crown.
Under these circumstances, Strafford devised a new plan for over. awing the discontented Presbyterians. He convened a Parliament, in Dublin, in the month of March 1640, from whom he obtained extravagant supplies, and a declaration of their unbounded confidence in his administration. Thus strengthened by " the sinews of war," he ordered the immediate levy of a large army, for the two-fold purpose of keeping the Ulster Presbyterians in subjection, and proving to the people of Scotland, that any rebellious symptoms in that country would be effectually checked by the prompt invasion of a disciplined force. Having thus, in his own estimation, rendered all secure, he committed the government of Ireland to his trusty friend, Sir Christopher Wandesford, and hurried, off to London, on the 4th of April, to receive, in person, the thanks of his Sovereign, and to aid him by his counsels, amidst the growing discontents of the English people.
A powerful army of 8,000 foot and 1,000 horse was speedily raised by the Earl of Ormond, and placed in various points along the coasts of Down and Antrim-having Carrickfergus for its head-quarters. This army, being chiefly composed of Roman Catholics, with a small mixture of episcopalian Protestants, was evidently well suited to the purpose for which it had been raised; but the burthen of its equipment, and the permanent cost of its support, created murmurs amongst all classes of the people. These murmurs gradually swelled into loud and general complaints ; whilst the two Houses of Parliament, freed from the restraint of Strafford's presence, speedily evinced their sympathy with the popular sentiment. Many members of the House of Commons were Puritans or Presbyterians ; and not a few were either avowed or secret Roman Catholics. All these parties, though widely differing from each other on the subject of religion, laboured under the weight of common grievances. Puritans, Presbyterians, and Catholics, had equally felt the scourge of Strafford's government—all were equally indignant at the tyranny of the bishops, the arbitrary decisions of the iniquitous Court of Starchamber, and the imposition of enormous taxation. Thus united by the powerful bonds of common injuries and common interests, they soon found themselves in a majority in Parliament, and speedily employed their power in reducing, to one fourth of the original amount, the extrava. gant supplies which they had granted only a few weeks before. They also presented a determined address to Wandesford complaining of