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gon gave him his power duvepeso or his armies, and his feat Ipovor or his imperial throne, and great authority or jurifa diction over all the parts of his empire. The beast therefore is the fuccefior and substitute of the dragon or of the idolatrous heathen Roman empire: and what other idolatrous power hath fucceeded to the heathen emperors in Rome, all the world is a judge and a witness. The dragon having failed in his purpose of restoring the old heathen idolatry, delegates his power to the beast, and thereby introduces a new species of idolatry, nominally different, but essentially the same, the worship of angels and faints instead of the gods and demigods of antiquity.

Another mark, whereby the beast was peculiarly diftinguished, was (ver. 3.) one of his heads as it were wounded to death. It will appear hereafter, that this head was the fixth head, for five were fallen (XVII. 10.) before St. John's time: and the sixth head was that of the Cæfars or emperors, there having been before kings, and confuls, and dictators, and decemvirs, and military tribunes with confular authority. The sixth head was as it were wounded to death, when the Roman empire was overturned by the northern nations, and an end was put to the very name of emperor in Momyllus Auguftulus : or rather, as the government of the Gothic kings was (3) much the same as that of the emperors with only a change of the name, this head was more effectually wounded to death, when Rome was reduced to a poor dukedom, and made tributary to the exarchate of Ravenna : and Sigonius, who hath written the best of these times and of these affairs, includes the history of the

sexti in episcopos Hispaniæ, Galliæ, gorius II. Interea non orthodoxi; i.e. &c. fatis luperbe exercuit ; fucceffores papis dissentientes, infames, extorres, seculi feptimi multo etiam magis. In intestabiles impp. legibus fa&ti funt. utroque feculo faventibus papis inva- V. Cod. in quo canones æquantur leluere imaginum cultus, et sanctoruin gibus, &c. Nonne hæc omnia fatis invocatio : nam hic ipfe Gregorius li. clare præstant magnam illam beftiæ jam taniis inferuit nomen beatæ virginis orta potestatem a dracone traditam, &c, Mariæ. En igitur blasphemias. Se- Mr. Mann's MS. culo octavo A. D. 727. imperium ci- (3) regnum veteris im perii ex vile Romæ, et ducatûs Romani, ex- omni parte fimillimum. Sigonius de communicato pulsoque imperatore Occidentali Imperio. Lib. 16. Ann. Græco, arripuit papa (teste Anastasio 494. ut Sigonio de Regno Italia L. 3.) Gre

Gothic kings in his history of the western empire. But not only one of his heads was as it were wounded to death, but his deadly wound was healed. If it was the fixth head which was wounded, that wound could not be healed by the rising of the seventh head as interpreters commonly conceive; the fame head which was wounded, muft be healed: and this was effected by the pope and people of Rome revolting from the exarch of Ravenna, and proclaiming Charles the great Auguftus and emperor of the Romans. Here the wounded imperial head was healed again, and hath subsisted ever since. At this time, partly thru the pope, and partly thro' the emperor, fupporting and strengthening each other, the Roman name again became formidable: and all the world wondered after the beast, and (ver. 4.) they worshipped the dragon which gave power unto the beast, and they worshipped the beast, jaying; IVho is like unto the beast? Who is able to make war with him? No kingdom or empire was like that of the beatt, it had not a parallel upon earth, and it was in vain for any to rest or oppose it, it prevailed and triumphed over all; and all the world in fubmitting thus to the religion of the beast, did in effect submit again to the religion of the dragon, it being the old idolatry with only new names. The worshipping of demons and idols is in effect the worshipping of devils.

Wonderful as the beast was, his words and actions (ver. 5--8.) are no less wonderful.

He perfectly resembles the little horn in Daniel. As the little horn (Dan. VII. 8, 25.) hath a mouth speaking great things, and spake great words against the moji High; so there was given unto the beast a mouth speaking great things, and he opened his mouth in blasphemy againyi God. As the little horn (Dan. VII. 21.) made war with the fuints, and prevailed against them; so it was given unto the beast to make war with the saints and to overcome them. As the little horn prospered (Dan. VII. 25.) until a time, and times, and the dividing of time, that is three prophetic years and a half; to power was given unto the beast to continue, to practise and prosper, forty and two months, which is exactly the same portion of time as three years and a half. We lee that not only the fame images, but almost the same words are employed; and the portraits being fo perfectly alike, it might fairly be presumed, if there was no other argument, that they were both drawn for the fame person : and having before clearly discovered who fat for the one, we cannot now be at any lofs to determin who fat for the other. It is the Roman beast in his laft state or under his feventh head: and he hath a mouth speaking great things and blafphemies; and what can be greater things and blasphemies, than the (4) claims of universal bishop, infallible judge of all controcerfies, sovran of kings, and disposer of kingdoms, vicegerent of Christ, and God upon earth! He hath alfo power coinoa to continue or rather to practise, to prevail, and prosper, forty and two months. Some read wongas wodępov, to make war, not rightly underftanding, I fuppose, what was meant by wolnoci alone; but it signifies to pradise, to prevail, and prosper, as the words noy and Doinot are (5) used by Daniel and the Greek tranflators. It doth not therefore follow, that the beast is to continue to exist for no longer a term, but he is to practise, to proper and prevail forty and two nionths; as the holy city (XI. 2.) is to be troden under foot of the Gentiles forty and two months which are the 1260 days or years of the reign of Antichrift. But if by the beast be understood the Heathen Roman empire, the Heathen Roman empire, instead of fubfifting 1260, did not fubfift 400 years after the date of this prophecy.

alınoit et faciet in eis, et confortabitur, and ongs, xa. suwdwon. et faciet, et profpe fall deal against them, and fall prevail, rabitur. andit practised, and prospered. Dan. XI. 7: wyr. sas moindes. et. Dan. VIII. 12. Tusn 7937). xat faciet, and be joali do exploits. ver. 28. Katsuduves, xat monoht. et prospera. See allo ver. 30.

After this general account of the blafphemies and exploits of the beast, there follows a specification of the particulars. He opened his mouth in blasphemy against God. Blasphemy against God may be faid to be of two kinds, not only fpeaking dishonourably of the supreme Being, but likewise attributing to the creature what belongs to the creator, as in idolatry; which is often the

-xas two והעשחה והצליתה (5)

(4) See the Introduction to Bar. bitur. et faciet. and fall prosper, and row's Treatise of the Pope's Supre- practise, ver. 24. 12 Tuy pun71. macy.

και ποιησει εν αυτοις, και κατισχυσει. (5)


sense of the word in scripture; as in Isaiah (LXV. 7.) They have burnt incense upon the mountains, and blafphemed me upon the hills; and in several other places: He blafphemes the name of God by affuming the divine titles and honors to himself

, and as it is exprefled in the Wisdom of Solomon, (XIV. 21.) by ascribing unto stones and stocks the incommunicable name. He blasphemes. the tabernacle of God, his temple and his church, by calling true Chriftians, who are the house of God, fcifinatics and heretics, and anathematizing them accordingly: or as you may understand it, by perverting the places dedicated to the worship of saints and angels. He blasphemes them that dwell in heaven, angels and glorified faints, by idolatrous worship and impious adoration; and disgraces their acts, and vilifies their memories, by fabulous legends and lying miracles.

So inuch for his blasphemies; nor are his exploits, less extraordinary. It was given unto him to make war with the saints and to overcome them: And who cani make any computation, or even frame any conception of the numbers of pious Christịans who have fallen a sacrifice to the bigotry and cruelty of Rome? Mede upon the place (6) hath observed from good authorities, that in the war with the Albigenfès and Waldenses there perished of these poor creatures in France alone a million. From the first institution of the Jefuits to the year 1480, that is in little more than thirty years, nine hundred thousand orthodox Chriftians tvere Nain. In the Netherlands alone, the Duke of Alva boasted, that

(6) Prima ejus expeditio incubuit thore, intra paucos annos fublata gloin Albigenfes et Waldenses, et fi riatus eft. Testatur Vergerius, qui quo alio nomine tunc appellati fint optime novit, Inquisitionem, ut vo. veri Chrifti cultores: quorum tanta cant, hæreticæ pravitatis vix triginti trages edita fuit ut per Galliam 1o. annorum fpatio, centum quinquaginta lam, fi P. Perionius in eju's helli Chriftianorum millia diversis afflic. historia rectè calculum inierit, occifa tionam generibus confumpfiffe. Fate. fint ad decies centena hominum millia. tur Sanderus infinitos Lolhardos et -Aborigine Jefuitarum, ad annum Sacramentarios in tota Europa igni. 1480, koc eft, paulo pluribus quam bus traditos fuisse ; quos tamen ait 30 annis, orthodoxoruin nongenta fere ille non a papa et episcopis, se a pomillia fuiffe trucidata, norat Baldui- liticis magiftratibus neci datos fuiffe. nus de Antichritto. in Belgio folo, Nimirum sc. juxta prophetiam rem idque manu folum carnificis, fævus geri oportuit: nam de fæculari beftia ille pugil Romanæ fedis dux Alba- dicitur, quod fanétis bellum faceret, nus, ad 36 animaruid millia, le au- colque vinceret. Mede, p. 503, 504. VOL. II. U


within a few years he had dispatched to the amount of thirty far thousand fouls, and those all by the hand of the common 'executioner. In the space of scarce thirty years, the Inquisition destroyed by various kinds of tortures a hundred and fifty thousand Christians. Sanders himfelf confefles, that an innumerable multitude of Lollards and Sacramentarians were burnt throughout all Europe, who yet, he says, were not put to death by the pope and bishops, but by the civil magistrates; which perfectly agrees with this prophecy, for of the secular beast it is faid, that he thould make war with the saints, and overcome them. No wonder that by these means he should obtain an universal authority over all kindreds, and tongues, and nations, and establith his dominion in all the countries of the western Roman empire: and that they fhould not only submit to his decrees, bu even adore his perfon, except the faithful few, whose "names, as citizens of heaven, were inrolled in the regifters of life. Let the Romanists boast therefore that theirs is the catholic church and universal empire; this is so far from being any evidence of the truth, that it is the very brand infixed by the fpirit of prophecy.

It was customary with our Saviour, when he would have his auditors pay a particular attention to what he had been faying, to add, He who hath ears to hear, let him hear. St. John repeats the fame admonition at the end of each of the seven epistles to the seven churches of Afia, and here in the conclusion of his defcription of the beaft, (ver. 9.) If any man hath an ear, let him hear : and certainly the description of the beast is deserving of the highest attention upon many accounts, and particularly because the right interpretation of the Apocalyps turneth upon it, as one of its main hinges. It is added, .by way of consolation to the church, that these enemies of God and of Christ, represented under the character of the beast, shall suffer the law of retaliation, and be as remarkably punished and tormented themselves, as they punished and tormented others. (ver. 10.) He who leudeth into captivity, Jhall go into captivity; He who killeth with the fword, must be killed with the sword. Such a promise might administer fome comfort; and

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