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indeed it would be wanted; for the patience and the faith of the faints would be tried to the utmost during the reign of the beast
. Here is the patience and the faith of the saints. Of all the trials and perfecutions of the church this would be the most severe, and exceed those of the primitive times both in degree and in duration.
11 And I beheld another beast coming up out of the earth, and he had two horns like a lamb, and he fpake as a dragon.
12 And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him, and causeth the earth and them which dwell therein, to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed:
13 And he doeth great wonders, so that he maketh fire come down from heaven on the earth in the fight of men.
14 And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth by the means of those miracles which he had
power to do in the sight of the beast, saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast which had the wound by a sword, and did live.
15 And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast should both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast, should be killed.
16 And he causeth all, both sinall and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:
'17 And that no man imight buy or fell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the 'number of his name.
18 Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is lix hundred threescore and fix.
From the description of the ten horned beast or Roman state in general, the prophet pafseth to that of the two* horned beust or Roman church in particular. The beast U 2
with ten crowned horns is the Roman empire as divided into ten kingdoms; the beast with two horns like a lamb is the Roman hierarchy, or body of the clergy regular and fecular. This beast is otherwise called the false prophet, as we shall see in several instances; than which there cannot be a stronger or plainer argument to prove, that false doctors or teachers were particularly designed. For the falfe prophet no more than the beaÅ is a single man, but a body or succession of men propagating false doctrins, and teaching lies for sacred truths. As the first beast rose up out of the sea, that is out of the wars and tumults of the world; fo this beast (ver. 11.) groweth up out of the earth like plants filently and without noise; and the greatest prelates have often been raised from monks and men of the lowest birthi and parentage. He had two horns like a lamb; he had, both regular and fecular, the appearance of a lamb; he derived his powers from the lamb, and pretended to be like the lamb all meekness and mildness. But he spake as a dragon, he had a voice of terror like the dragon or Roman einperors in ufurping divine titles and honors, in commanding idolatry, and in perfecuting and flaying the true worshippers of God and faithful fervants of Jefuis Chrift. He is an ecclefiaftical person, but intermixeth himself much in civil affairs. lle is the prime minifter, adviser and mover of the first beast, or the beast before mentioned, (ver. 12.) Ile erercileth all the power of the first beast before him.
lic holdeth imperium in imperio, an empire within an empire; claimeth a temporal authority as well as a spiritual; hath not only the principal direction of the temporal powers, but often engageth them in his service, and enforceth his canons and decrees with the sword of the civil magitirate. As the first beatt concurs to mainiaiu his authority, fo he in return confirms and maintains the fovranty and dominion of the first bcati over: liis fubjects; and caufeth the earth, and them who divell therein, to wor/hip the first beast, whole deudly wound was healed. He fupports tyranny, as he is by tyranny fupported. lle inflaves the consciences, as the first beali fubjugates the bodies of mėn. As
Mr. Whiston well (7) observes, “ He is the common “ center and cement which unites all the distinct king“ doms of the Roman empire; and by joining with them “ procures them a blind obedience from their subjects : " and fo he is the occasion of the preservation of the old “ Roman empire in fome kind of unity, and name, and
strength; which otherwise had been quite diffolved by " the inundations and wars succeeding the settlement of “' the barbarous nations in that empire. Such is the power and authority of the beast
, and now we ihall see what courses he pursues to confirm and eftablish it. He pretends, like other false prophets, (yer. 13.) to how great hgns and wonders and even to call for fire from heaven, as Elias did. His impoftures too are fo successful, that (ver. 14.) he deceiveth them that dwell on the earth, by the means of those miracles which he hath power to do. In this respect” he perfe&ly resembles St. Paul's man of hin, (2 Theff. II. 9.) whose coming is after the working of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying wonders, and with all deceivableness of unrighteous nefs : or rather they are one and the same character represented in different lights, and under different names. It is farther observable, that he is said to perform his miracles in the hght of men in order to deceive them, and in the fight of the beast in order to serve him: but not in the hght of God to serve his cause, or promote his religion. Now miracles, visions, and revelations, are the mighty boast of the church of Rome; the contrivances of an artful cunning clergy to impose upon an ignorant credulous laity. Even fire is pretended to come down from heaven, as in the case of St. Anthony's fire, and other instances cited by (8) Brightman and other writers on the Revelation ; and in folemn excommunications, which are called the thunders of the church, and are performed with the ceremony of cafting down burning torches from on high, as symbols and emblems of fire from heaven. Miracles are thought fo necessary and ellential, that they are reckoned among the notes of the
(7) Whifton's Ellay on the Rev. (8) Vide Brightman. et Poli SyPart
nopf. in locum.
catholic church; and they are alleged principally in fupport of purgatory, prayers for the dead, the worthip of laints, images, and relics, and the like (as they are called): catholic doctrines. But if these miracles were all real, we learn from hence what opinion we ought to frame of them; and what then shall she say, if they are all fictions and counterfeits? They are indeed fo far from being any proofs of the true church, that they are rather a proof of a false one; they are, as we fee, the distinguishing mark of Anticbrift.
The influence of the two-horned beast or corrupted clergy is farther seen in perfuading and inducing mankind (ver. 14.) to make an image to the beast, which had the wound by a sword and did live; that is an image and representative of the Roman empire, which was wounded by the sword of the barbarous nations, and revived in the revival of a new emperor of the west." He had also power (ver. 15.) to give life and activity unto the image of the beast. It Thould not be a dumb and lifelefs idol, but should speak and deliver oracles, as the statues of the heathen gods were feigned to do, and should cause to be killed as many as would not worship and obey it. Soine by this image of the beast (9) understand “the rise of the
new empire of Charlemain, which was an image of " the old Roman empire, and is now become the em“ pire of Germany:" but this is the beast himself, who had the wound by a sword and did live, and not the image of the beast; the rise of this new empire was the healing of his deadly wound, by which he lived again. Others more probably (1) conceive, that this image of the beast is “ the office of inquisition, which was intros “ duced among the blind yulgar, as a popular scheme, “ and warmly recommended by the Dominican and “ Franciscan monks, at first without any voice of con“ mand, or power of execution; till courts were erected
independent of bishops; and judges, officers, fami“ liars, prisons, and tormentors were appointed, who
(9) Limborch. Theol. Chrift. Lib. (1) Vitring, in locum. Mann's 7. Cap. 11. Sect. 76. Lord Napier in Critical notes on some Passages of locum. Whiston's Essay on the Rev. Scripture, p. 121. Part 3, Vifion 6.
"" should " Thould put to exquisite punishments, and deliver over, " to a cruel death all that would not fubmit with an
implicit obedience:” but the office of inquisition is, established only in some particular popish countries, and this belongs and extends to all in general. As many as would not worship the image of the beast
, the image of the beat should cause to be killed: but there are many papifts who do not receive and own the authority of the inquifition, and yet the mquisition doth not attempt to dea stroy and extirpate all such papists. What appears most probable is, that this image and representative of the beajt is the pope. He is properly the idol of the church. He represents in himself the whole power of the beast
, and is the head of all authority temporal as well as fpiritual. He is nothing more than a private perfon without power and without authority, till the two-horned beast or the corrupted clergy by choosing hiın pope give life unto him, and enable him to speak and utter his des crees, and to perfecute éven to death as many as refuse to fubmit to him and to worship him, As soon as he is chofen pope, he is cloathed with the pontifical robes, and crowned and placed upon the altar, and the cardinals come and kiss his feet, whịch ceremony is called adoration. They first elect, and then they worship him, as in the (2) medals of Martin V, where two are repre, fented crowning the pope, and two kneeling before him, with this infcription, Quem creant adorant, Whom they create they adore. He is the principle of unity to the ten kingdoms of the beast, and causeth, as far as he is able, all who will not acknowledge his fupremacy, to be put to death. : In thort, he is the most perfect likeness and resemblance of the ancient Roman emperors, is as great a tyrant in the Christian world as they were iu the Heathen .world, prelides in the fame city, usurps the fame powers, affects the fame titles, and requires the fame universal homage and adoration. So that the pro« phecy defcends more and more into particulars, from the Roman ftate or ten kingdoms in general, to the Roman church or clergy in particular, and still more
(2) Bonanni Numifmat. Pontific. Romanos. Daubuz. p. 5826