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20 And the wine-press was trodden without the city, and blood caine out of the wine-press, even unto the horse-bridles, by the space of a thousand and fix hundred furlongs.

But still the voices of these three warning angels not having their due influence and effect, the judgments of God will overtake the followers and adherents of the beast

, which judgments are represented under the figures of harvest and vintage, (ver. 14--20.) figures not unusual in the prophets, and copied particularly from the prophet Joel, who denounced God's judgments against the enemies of his people in the like terms; (III. 13.) Put ye in the fickle, for the harvest is ripe; come, get you down, for the press is full, the fats overflow, for their wickedness is great. What particular events are signified by this harvest and vintage, it appears impossible for any man to determin, time alone can with certainty discover, for these things are yet in futurity. Only it may be observed, that these two fignal judgments will as certainly come, as harvest and vintage succeed in their season; and in the course of providence the one will precede the other, as in the course of nature the harvest is before the vintage; and the latter will greatly surpass the former, and be attended with a more terrible destruction of God's enemies. It is said (ver. 20.) that the blood came even unto the horse-bridles, which is a strong hyperbolical way of speaking to express vaft Naughter and effufion of blood; a way of speaking not unknown to the Jews, for (6) the Jerusalemn Talmud describing the woful flaughter, which the Roman emperor Adrian made of the Jews at the destruction of the city of Bitter, faith that the horses waded in blood up to the nostrils. Nor are similar examples wanting even in the classic authors: for (7) Silius Italicus, speaking of Annibal's descent into Italy, useth a like expreslion of the bridles flowing with much

(6) In Taanith Fol. 69. Col. 1. ea interficientes, donec mergeretur Lightfoot's Harmony of the N. T. equus in sanguine usque ad 08, &c. in locum. Vide etiam Echa R. II. 2. apud Westein in locum. Tribus annis cum dimidio obsedit (7) Sil. Ital. III. 705, Adrianus Bitterem, nec ceffarunt in multoque fluentia fanguine tora. X 4


blood. The stage where this bloody tragedy is acted, is without the city, by the space of a thousand and fix hundred furlongs, which, as Mr. Mede (8) ingeniously observes, is the measure of stato della chiesa, or the state of the Roman church, or St. Peter's patrimony, which reaching from the walls of Rome unto the river Po and the marshes of Verona, contains the space of 200 Italian miles, which make exactly 1600 furlongs.



marvellous, feven angels having the seven last plagues, for in them is filled up the wrath of God.

2 And I saw as it were a sea of glass, mingled with fire; and them that had gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his marks, and over the number of his name, stand on the sea of glass, having the harps of God.

3 And they 'sing the songs of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are thy works, Lord God almighty; just and true are thy ways, 'thou king of saints.

4 Who shall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name? for.thou only art poly: for all nations shall come and worship before thee; for thy judgments are made manifest.

5 And after that I looked, and behold, the temple of the tabernacle of the testimony in heaven was opened:

6 And the seven angels came out of the temple, having the seven plagues, cloathed in pure and white linen, and having their breasts girded with golden girdles.

7 And one of the four beasts gave unto the seven

(8) In vicino item locus est cui oftium et Paludes Veronnonses por. dictus (tadiorum nurnerus perinde rigitur fpatio milliarium Italicorum convenit : puta stato della chiesa, seu ducentorum, id Itadiorum 1600. ecclefiæ Romanæ latifundium, quod Mede p. 522. ab urbe Romi usque ad ultimum Padi


angels, seven golden vials full of the wrath of God, who liveth for ever and ever.

8 And the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from his power, and no man was able to enter into the temple, till the seven plagues of the seven angels were fulfilled.

God's judgments upon the kingdom of the beast, or Antichristian empire, are hitherto denounced, and described in general terms under the figures of harvest and vintage. A more particular account of them follows under the emblem of seven vials which are called (ver. 1.) the seven last plagues, for in them is filled up the wrath of God. These feven laft plagues muft neceffarily fall under the seventh and last trumpet, or the third and last woe-trumpet; so that as the seventh seal contained the seven trumpets, the seventh trumpet comprehends the seven vials. Not only the concinnity of the prophecy requires this order; for otherwise there would be great confusion, and the vials would interfere with the trumpets, fome falling under one trumpet, and some under another: but moreover, if these feven last plagues and the consequent destruction of Babylon be not the subject of the third woe, the third woe is no where defcribed

particularly as are the two former woes. When four of the seven trumpets had founded, it was declared (VIII. 13.) Joe, woe, woe to the inhabitants of the earth, by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels which are yet to found. Accordingly at the founding of the fifth trumpet (IX. 1.) commences the woe of the Saracen or Arabian locufts; and in the conclufion is added (ver. 12.) One woe is past, and behold, there come two woes more hereafter. At the founding of the sixth trumpet (IX. 13.) begins the plague of the Euphratéan horsemen or Turks; and in the conclufion is added (XI. 14.) The second woe is past, and behold, the third woe cometh quickly. At the founding of the seventh trumpet therefore (XI. 15, &c.) one would naturally expect the description of the third woe to succeed: but as it was before observed, there follows only a short and fummary account of the seventh trumpet, and of the

joyful joyful rather than of the woeful part of it. A general intimation indeed is given of God's taking unto him his great power, and destroying them who destroy the earth : but the particulars are reserved for this place; and if these last plagues coincide not with the laft woe, there are other plagues and other woes after the laft; and how can it be said that the wrath of God is filled up in them, if there are others besides them? If then these feven last plagues synchronize with the seventh and last trumpet, they are all yet to come; for the fixth trumpet is not yet past, nor the woe of the Turkish or Othman empire yet ended : and consequently there is no poffibility of explaining them in fuch a manner as when the prophecies may be parallel with histories, or evinced by ocular demonstration. The many fruitless attempts which have hitherto been made to explain them, are a farther proof that they cannot well be explained, the beft interpreters have failed and floundered in this part more than any other. . But before the vials are poured out, the scene opens with a preparatory vision, which is the fubject of this chapter.

As feven angels founded the seven trumpets, fo fevenz angels are appointed to pour out the seven vials, angels being always the ministers of providence; and in order to show that these judgments are to fall upon the kingdom of the beast, the true worshippers of God and faithful servants of Jesus, who had escaped victors from the beast, vexwules ex T8 Impos, and had never submitted to his tyranny or religion, are described (ver. 2, 3, 4.) like unto the children of Ifrael after their deliverance and escape out of Egypt. For as the children of Israel, (Exod. XV.) having paffed through the red sea, stood on the shore, and secing their enemies overwhelmed with the waters, sung the triumphant fong of Moses : so these having passed through the fiery trials of this world, stand on the sen of glass mingled with fire, which was mentioned before, (iv. 6.) and seeing the vials ready to be poured out upon their enemies, fing a song of triumph for the manifestation of the divine judgments; which is called the song of Moses and the song of the Lamb, the words in great meafure being taken from the


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fong of Moses and other parts of the Old Testament, and applied in a christian sense. After this the most holy place of the temple is opened, (ver. 5.) and the seven angels come out of the temple, (ver. 6.) to denote that their commillion is immediately from God, cloathed like the high priest but in a more august manner, in pure and white linen, to signify the righteousness of these judgments, and having their breasts girded, to show their readiness to execute the divine commands, with golden girdles, as emblems of their power and majesty, A vial then is given unto each of the seven angels (ver. 7.) by mne of the four living creatures, the representatives of the church; by which it is intimated, that it is in vindication of the church and true religion that these plagues are inflicted. Moreover the temple is filled with fmoke from the glory of God and from his power, fo that no man is able to enter into it; (ver. 8.) in the same manner as the tabernacle, when it was confecrated by Mofes, and the temple when it was dedicated by Solca mon, (Exod. XL. 34, 35. 1 Kings VIII. 10, 11.) were: both filled with a cloud and the glory of the Lord, so that neither Mofes nor the priests could enter therein: a farther proof of the majestic presence and extraordinary interposition of God in the execution of these judgments.

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ND I heard a great voice ont of the temple,

pour out the vials of the wrath of God


the earth.

In obedience to the divine command (ver. 1.) the seven angels come forth to pour out the vials of the wrath of God upon the earth : and as the trumpets were fo many steps and degrees of the ruin of the Roman empire, to the vials are of the ruin of the Roman church. "The one in polity and government is the image of the other; the one is compared to the system of the world, and hath her earth, and fea, and rivers, and sun, as well as the other; and this is the reafon of the fimilitude ani re


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