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femblance of the judgments in both cases. Some resemblance too there is between these plagues, and those of Egypt.
Rome papal hath already (XI. 8.) been distinguished by the title of Spiritual Egypt, and refembles Egypt in her punishments as well as in her crimes, tyranny, idolatry, and wickedness.
2 And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and there fell a noisome and grievous fore upon the men which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image.
Vial the first (ver. 2.) is poured out upon the earth; and so the hail and fire of the first trumpet (VIII. 7.) were cast upon the earth. It produceth a noisome and grievous fore ; and in this respect resembleth the sixth plague of Egypt, (Exod. IX. 10.) which was boils breaking forth with blains. This plague is inflicted upon the men who had the mark of the beast
, and upon them who worshipped his image; which is to be understood of the others also, where it is not expreffed. Whether these fores and ulcers are natural or moral, the event must show.
3 And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea : and it became as the blood of a dead man: and every living foul died in the fea.
4 And the third angel poured out his vial upon the rivers and fountains of waters; and they became blood.
5 And I heard the angel of the waters say, Thou art righteous, O Lord, which art, and wast, and shalt be, because thou hast judged thus :
6 For they have thed the blood of saints and prophets, and thou hast given them blood to drink; for they are worthy. '
7 And I heard another out of the altar say, Even fo, Lord God almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments.
Vial the second (ver. 3.) is poured out upon the sea, and the sea becomes as the blood of a dead man, or as con
gealed gealed biood: and in like manner under the second trumpet (VIII. 8. ) the burning mountain was cast into the sea, and the sea became blood. Vial the third (ver. 4.) is poured out upon the rivers and fountains of waters, and they became blood: and in like manner under the third trumpet (VIII. 10.) the burning star fell upon the rivers and fountains of waters. There is a close connexion betwen these two vials; and the effects are similar to the first plague of Egypt, (Exod. VII. 19.) when the waters of Egypt, and their streams; and their rivers, and their ponds, and their pools of water became blood. Seas and rivers of blood manifestly denote great slaughter and devaftation : and hereupon (ver. 5, 6.) the angel of the waters, for it was a prevailing opinion in the east, that a (9) particular angel presided over the waters, as others did over other elements and parts of nature, and mention was made before (XIV. 18.) of the angel who had power over fire; this angel' of the waters celebrates the righteous judgments of God in adapting and proportioning the punishments of the followers of the beast to their crime; for no law is more justand equitable, than that they. who have been guilty of shedding the blood of saints and prophets, should be punished in the effusion of their own blood. Another angel out of the altar (ver. 7.) for (VI. 9.) under the altar were the souls of them who were Main for the word of God and for the testimony which they held, declares his assent in the most folemn manner, Even so, Lord God almighty, true and righteous are thy judgments.
8 And the fourth angel poured out his vial upon the fun; and power was given unto him to scorch men with fire.
9 And men were scorched with great heat, and blafphemed the name of God, which hath power , over these plagues : and they repented not to give
· (9) Imò Persze existimant peculiari &c. Hyde de Relig. Vet. Persarum, angelo denandatum effe tueri aquas, Cap. 6. p. 139. Vide etiam Cap. 19.
As As the fourth trumpet affected the fun; (VIII. 12.) fo likewise the fourth vial (ver. 8, 9.) is poured out upon the fun. An intense heat ensues; and men blafpheme the name of God, and repent not to give him glory. Whether by this intense heat of the fun, he meant litterally uncommon fultry feafons, fcorching and withering the fruits of the earth, and producing peftilential fever and inflammations; or figuratively, a most tyrannical and exorbitant exercise of arbitrary power by chofe who may be called the fun in the firmament by the beast, the pope or emperor; time must discover. Men shall be tormented, and complain grievously; they shall like the rebellious Jews (IF. VIII. 21.) fret themselves, and curse their king, and their God, and look upward, look upward not to pray but only to blafpheme; they shall not have the fenfe or courage to repent, and forsake their idolatry and wickednefs. When the events shall take place; and these things shall all be fulfilled, not only these prophecies of the vials shall be better understood, but also those of the trumpets, to which they bear some analogy and resemblance.
10 And the fifth angel poured out his vial upon the seat of the beast; and his kingdom was full of darkness, and they gnawed their tongues for pain,
11 And blafphemed the God of heaven, because of their pains and their fores, and repented not of their deeds.
Vial the fifth (ver. 10, 11.) is poured out upon the seat or throne of the beast, and his kingdom becomes full of darkness, as Egypt did (Exod. X. 21.) under her ninth plague. This is some great calamity which shall fall upon Rome itself, and shall darken and confound the whole Antichristian empire. But ftill the consequences of this plague are much the same as those of the foregoing one; for the sufferers, instead of repenting of their deeds, are hardened like Pharaoh, and still perfist in their blasphemy and idolatry, and obstinately withstand all attempts of reformation.
12 And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared.
13 And I saw three unclean spirits like frogs come out of the mouth of the dragon, and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the mouth of the false prophet.
14 For they are the spirits of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the kings of the earth, and of the whole world, to gather them to the battle of that great day of God almighty.
15 Behold, I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments, left he walk naked, and they fee his shame.
16 And he gathered them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue, Armageddon.
Vial the fixth (ver. 12.) is poured out ироп.
the great river Euphrates, and the water thereof is dried up, to prepare a paffage for the kings of the eaft. Whether by Euphrates be meant the river so called, or only a mystic Euphrates, as Rome is mystic Babylon; and whether by the kings of the east be meant the Jews in particular, or any eastern potentates in general ; can be matters only of conjecture, and not of certainty and assurance till the event shall make the determination. Whoever they be, they appear to threaten the ruin and destruction of the kingdom of the beast: and therefore (1) the agents and emiffaries of popery, (ver. 13, 14.) of the dragon, the representative of the devil, and of the beast, the representative of the antichristian empire, and of the false prophet, the representative of the antichristian church, as disagreeable, as loquacious, as fordid, as impudent (2) as frogs, are employed to oppose them, and stir up the princes and potentates of their communion to make their united and last effort in a religious war.
Of neceflity there must be times of great trouble and afflic
(1) The three unclean spirits like Loyalitæ tres impuros spiritus ranis frogs Mr. Mann conceives to be the fimiles non male referunt. M.S. Dominicans, Franciscans, and Je- (2) Vide Bochartî Hieroz. Part, Franciscani, et Poit. Lib. 5. Cap. 4.
tion; so that an exhortation is inserted (ver. 15.) by way of parenthesis, of the suddenness of these judgments, and of the blessedness of watching, and of being cloathed and prepared for all events. Bezà conceives that this verfe was transferred hither from the 3d chapter, where it fhould be subjoined to the 18th verse: but the 3d chapter and the 16th chapter are at too great a distance for such a transposition to be made. However it is certain that this insertion hath in some measure disturbed the sense, and broken the connection of the discourse; for our translators as well as several others render the following words (ver. 16.) And he gathered them together, the evil spirits and agents before mentioned gather all the forces of the popish princes together, into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon, that is the mountain of destruction.
17 And the seventh angel poured out his vial into the air; and there caine a great voice out of the temple of heaven, from the throne, faying, It is done.
18 And there were voices, and thunders, and lightnings; and there was a great earthquake, such as was not since men were upon the earth, fo mighty an earthquake and so great.
19 And the great city was divided into three parts; and the cities of the nations fell: and great Babylon came in remembrance before God, to give unto her the cup of the wine of the fierceness of his wrath. .
20 And every iland fled away, and the mountains were not found.
21 And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blafphemed God because of the plague of the hail: for the plague. thereof was exceeding great.
Vial the seventh (ver. 17.) is) pured out into the air, the seat of Satan's relidence, who is emphatically stiled