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" adorned like another Aaron he would appear abroad 15 fomewhat more august than a man, delighting to be “ feen and admired by every one.
But left he alone < fhould seem to differ from the rest, he made a decree, " that none but cardinals should under a penalty wear “ red caps; to whom he had in the first year of his “ popedom given cloth of that color, to make horse" cloths' or mule-cloths of when they rode." You have another conspicuous instance in the Lady of Loretto; the (8) riches of whose holy image, and house, and treasury; the golden angels, the gold and silver Tamps; the vast number, variety, and richness of the jewels, of the vestments for the holy image, and for the priests; with the prodigious treasures of all forts; are far beyond the reach of defcription ; and as Mr. Addison fays, “as much furpafled iny expectation, as other
fights have generally fallen short of it. Silver can « scarce find an acmission, and gold itfelf looks but “ poorly aniongst fuch an incredible number of pre6 cious stones. Morcover the woman, like other harJots who give philters and love-potions to inflame their lovers, hath a golden cup in her hand, full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication; to lignity the fpecious and alluring arts, wherewith the bewitcheih and inciteth men to idolatry, which is abomination and spiritual fornication. It is an image copied from Jeremiah, (LI. 7.) Babylon hath been a golden cup in the Lord's hand, that made all the earth drunken: and in that excellent little moral trcatife (9), intitled the Table of Cebes, there is a like picture of Deceit or Impofiure; "a fair, beautiful, • and false woman, and having a cup in her hand; the is • called Deceit, and feduceth all mankind.' And is not this a much more proper emblem of pontifical than of imperial Rome?
Yet farther to distinguin the woman, she has her name infcribed upon her forehead, (ver. 5.) in allusion
(8) See Wright's Travels. p. 123. τας τες ανθρώπες πλανωσα. Mulier Addison's Travels. p. 93•
fisto vultu, argutaque fpecie, et manu (9) yuun TanOLLEvn Tw fidel, xquo poculum quoddam ienens. Impottura πιθανη φαινομένης και εν τη χερι εχ8σα vocatur, quae omines homines feducit. ποτηριον τι-Απατη καλείται, ή παν- Tab. Cebetis non longe ab initio.
to the practice of fome notorious prostitutes, who had their names written in a label upon their foreheads, as we may (1) collect from ancient authors. The infcription is so very particular, that we cannot easily mistake the person ; Mystery, Babylon the great, the mother of harlots
, or rather of fornications and abominations of the earth. Her name Myjtery can imply no less, than that the dealeth in myfteries; her religion is a mystery, a myf tery of iniquity; and the herself is mystically and spiritually Babylon the great. . But the title of myfiery is in no respect proper to ancient Rome, more than any other city; and neither is there any mystery in substituting one heathen, idolatrous, and persecuting city for another; but it is indeed a mystery, that a christian city profefling and boasting herself to be the city of God, should prove another Babylon in idolatry and cruelty to the people of God. She glories in the name of Roman Catholic, and well therefore may she be called Babylon the great. She affects the stile and title of our holy mother the churcht
, but she is in truth the mother of fornications and abominations of the earth. Neither can this character with any propriety be applied to ancient Rome; for the was rather a learner of foreign superstitions, than the mistress of idolatry to other nations; as appears in various infiances, and particularly from (2) that folemn form of adjuration, which the Romans used when they laid siege to a city, calling forth the tutelary eleities of the place, and promising them temples, and facrifices, and other folemnities at Rome. It may be concluded therefore that this part of the prophecy is sufficiently fulfilled, tho' there should be reason to question the truth of what, is asserted by some writers, that the word mystery was, formerly written in letters of gold upon the forepart of the pope's mitre. Scaliger (3) affirms it upon the au
(1) Nomen tuum pependit in (2) Macrobii Saturnal. Lib.
3. fronte : : pretia stupri accepifti ; &c. Cap.9. Seneca. Lib. I. Controverf. 2. Ju-- (3) Feu Monsieur de Montmo. venal. Sat. VI. 122.
rency eltant à Rome du temps qu' -tunc nuda papillis
on parloit librement et du S. Pere et Constitit auratis, titulum mentita Ly- du S. Siege, apprit d'homme digne ciscæ,
de foy, qu' à la verité le tiare ponti. Y 4
thority of the Duke de Montmorency, who received his information from a man of good credit at Rome. Francis le Moyne and Brocardus (4) confirm it, appealing to ocular inspection; and when king James objected this, Lessius could not deny it. If the thing be true, it is a wonderful coincidence of the event with the letter of the prophecy; but it hath been much controverted, and you may see the authors on both sides in (5) Wolfius. It is much more certain, and none of that communion can deny it, that the ancient mitres were usually adorned with inscriptions. One particuJarly (6) there is “ preserved at Rome as a precious “ relic of pope Sylvester 1, richly but not artfully em“ broidered with the figure of the virgin Mary crowned, “ and holding a little Christ, and these words in large
capitals underneath, AVE REGINA CELI, Hail queen of heaven, in the front; of which father Angelo Rocca, keeper of the pope's facristy, and an eminent antiquary has given a copper-plate in the third vol, p. 490 of the works of pope Gregory I. and it seems
more probably to have belonged to Gregory; because " he is said to have first instituted at Rome the lita“ nies to the virgin Mary.” An inscription this direaly contrary to that on the forefront of the high priest's mitre (Exod. XXVIII. 36.) HOLINESS TO THE LORD.
Infamous as the woman is for her idolatry, she is no less detestable for her cruelty, which are the two principal characteristics of the Antichristian empire. She is (ver. 6.)drunken with the blood of the faints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus :' which may indeed be applied both to Pagan and to Christian Rome, for both
fical avoit escript au frontal en let. card in locum apud Vitring: P: 763. tres d'or Mysterium. Scal. in locum Romanus pontifex, in fua tiara, hoc apud Critic. Sacr.
ipfum nomen infcriptum habuit Myste(4) Idem quoque confirmant Franc rium, quod autopla ipfi teftati fünt: le Moyne et Jacobus Brocarduş in et cum id Jacobus Rex objiceret, h. l. ad aprobuv provocantes, non Leffius negare non potuit. Downam. disfimulante Leonardo Leslio. Wol. apud Poli Synopf. in locum. fius in locum. In tiara, in mitra (5) Jo. Christophori Wolfii Curæ papæ habes hoc verbum Mysterium Philolog. et Cri cæ. om. 5. scriptum: ut non fit tibi opus lon- (6) See Mann's "Critical Notes on gius interpre.ationem quærere. Cro. some passages of Scripture. p. 112.
have in their turns cruelly perfecuted the saints and martyrs of Jesus : but the latter is more deserving of the character, as the hath far exceeded the former both in the degree and duration of her persecutions. It is very true, as it was hinted before, that if Rome Pagan hath slain her thousands of innocent Christians, Rome Christian hath sain her ten thousands. For not to mention other outrageous Naughters and barbarities; the croisades against the Waldenses and Albigenfes, the murders committed by the Duke of Alva in the Netherlands, the nafsacres in France and Ireland, will probably amount to above ten times the number of all the Chriftians slain in all the ten perfecutions of the Roman emperors put together. St. John's admiration also plainly evinces, that Christian Rome was intended : for it could be no matter of surprise to him, that a Heathen city should perfecute the Christians, when he himself had seen and suffered the persecutions under Nero; but that a city professedly Chriftian, should wanton and riot in the blood of Chriftians, was a subject of astonishment indeed; and well might he, as it is emphatically expressed, wonder with grcat wonder.
7 And the angel faid unto me, Wherefore didft thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hatla the seven heads and ten horns.
8 The beast that thou fawest, was, and is not ; and shall afcend out of the bottomlefs pit, and go into perdition : and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, (whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world) when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.
9 And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are feven mountains on which the woman sitteth.
10 And there are seven kings: five are fallen, and one is, and the other is not yet come; and when he cometh, he must continue a short space. 11 And the beast that was, and is not, even he is
the eighth, and is of the seven, and goeth into perdition.
12 And the ten horns which thou sawest, are ten kings, which have received no kingdom as yet ; but receive power as kings one hour with the beaft.
13 These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength unto the beast.
14 These fhall make war with the Lamb, and the Lamb fhall overcome them: for he is Lord of lords, and King of kings; and they that are with him, are called, and clofen, and faithful.
15 And he faith unto me, The waters which thou fawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, aud multitudes, and nations, and tongues.
16 And the ten borns which thou fawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her defolate, and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.
17 For God hath put in their hearts to fulfil his vill, and to agree, and give their kingdom unto the beafi, until the words of God thall be fulfilled.
18 And the woman which thou fawest, is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.
It was not thought fufficient to represent these things only in vision; and therefore the angel, like the ayyidos, nuncius, or messenger in the ancient drama, undertakes to explain (ver. 7.) the mystery, the mystic scene or secret meaning, of the woman, and of the beaji that carrieth her: and the angel's interpretation is indeed the best key to the Revelation, the best clue to direct and conduct us thro' this intricate labyrinth.
The mystery of the beast is first explained; and the beast is confidered first in general (ver. 8.) under a threefold state or succession, as existing, and then cealing to be, and then reviving again, to as to become another and the fame. He was, and is not, xQ1T&R E5iv and yet is, or according to other copies και παρεσαι αnd hall come, Jhall afcend out of the bottomless pit. A beast in the pro