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that what would dissolve it would give pain, so that by these means we may preserve ourselves. Aliments are agreeable; the dissolution of the parts of our bodies is painful ; love, hatred, and anger, properly understood, and exercised to a certain degree are natural and fit. The stoics, who annihilated the passions, did not know man, and the schoolmen, who to comfort people under the gout or the stone told them that a rational man ought not to pay any regard to what passed in his body, never made many disciples among wise men. This observation affords us a second clue to the meaning of the apostle : at least it gives us a second precaution to avoid an error. By fleshly lusts he doth not mean a natural inclination to preserve the body and the ease of life ; he allows love, hatred and anger to a certain degree, and as far as the exercise of them doth not prejudice a greater interest. Observe well this last expression, as far as may be without prejudice to a greater interest.
The truth of our second reflection depends on this restriction.
3. A man being composed of two substances, one of which is more excellent than the other; a being placed between two interests, one of which is greater than the other, ought, when these two interests clash, to prefer the more noble before the less noble, the greater interest before the less. This third principle is a third clue to what St. Peter calls lusts, or passions. Man hath two substances, and two interests. As far as he can without prejudicing his eternal interest he ought to endeavor to promote his temporal interest : but when the two clash he ought to sacrifice the less to the greater. Fleshly lusts is put for what is irregular and depraved in our desires, and what makes us prefer the body before the soul, a temporal before an eterFOL. v.
nal interest. That this is the meaning of the apostle is clear from his calling these passions or lusts fleshly. What is the meaning of this word ? The scripture generally uses the word in two senses. Sometimes it is literally and properly put for flesh, and sometimes it signifies sin. St. Peter calls the passions fleshly in both these senses; in the first because some come from the body as voluptuousness, anger, drunkenness, and in the second because they spring from our depravity. Hence the apostle Paul puts among the works of the flesh both those which have their seat in the body, and those which have in a manner no connection with it. Now the works of the flesh are these, adultery, lasciviousness, idolatry, heresies, envyings. According to this the works of the flesh are not only such as are seated in the flesh (for envy and heresy cannot be of this sort) but all depraved dispositions.
This is a general idea of the passions: but as it is vague and obscure, we will endeavor to explain it more distinctly, and with this view we will shewfirst what the passions do in the mind-next what they do in the senses-thirdly what they are in the imagination and lastly what they are in the heart. Four portraits of the passions, four explications of the, condition of man. In order to connect the matter more closely, as we shew you what fleshly lusts, are in these four views, we will endeavor to convince you that in these four respects they war against the soul. The second part of our discourse therefore, which was to treat of the disorders of the passions, will be included in the first, which explains their nature.'
1. The passions produce in the mind a strong attention to whatever can justify and gratify them. The most odious objects may be so placed as to appear agreeable, and the most lovely objects so as to appear odious. There is no absurdity so palpable but it may be made to appear likely, and there is no truth so clear but it may be inade to appear doubtful. A passionate man fixes all the attention of his mind on such sides of objects as favor his passion, and this is the source of innumerable false judgings, of which we are every day witnesses and authors.
If you observe all the passions, you will find they have all this character. What is vengeance in the mind of a vindictive man? It is a fixed attention to all the favorable lights in which vengeance may be considered ; it is a continual study to avoid every odious light in which the subject may be placed. On the one side, there is a certain deity in the world, who hath made revenge a law. This deity is worldly honor, and at the bar of this judge to forget injuries is mean, and to pardon them cowardice. On the other side vengeance disturbs society, usurps the office of the magistrate, and violates the precepts of religion. A dispassionate man, examining without prejudice this question, ought I to revenge the injury I have received, would weigh all these motives, consider each apart, and all together, and would determine to act according as the most just and weighty reasons should determine him : but a revengeful man considers none but the first, he pays no attention to the last; he always exclaims, my honor, my honor, he never says my religion and my salvation.
What is hatred ? It is a close attention to a man's imperfections. Is any man free ? Is any man so imperfect as to have nothing good in him? Is there
nothing to compensate his defects ? This man is · not handsome, but he is wise : his genius is not
lively, but his heart is sincere : he cannot assist
you with money, but he can give you much good advice supported by an excellent exainple: he is not either prince, king, or emperor, but he is a man, a christian, a believer, and in all these respects he deserves esteem. The passionate man turns away his eyes from all these advantageous sides, and attends only to the rest. Is it astonishing that he hates a person, in whom he sees no. thing but imperfection? Thus a counsellor opens and sets forth his cause with such artifice that law seems to be clearly on his side; he forgets one fact, suppresses one circumstance, omits to draw one inference, which being brought forward to view entirely change the nature of the subject, and his client loses his cause. In the same manner, a defender of a false religion always revolves in his mind the arguments, that seem to establish it, and never recollects those, which subvert it. He will curtail a sentence, cut off what goes before, leave out what follows, and retain only such detached expressions as seem to countenance his error, but which in connection with the rest would strip it of all probability. What is still more singular is, that love to true religion, that love, which under the direction of reason opens a wide field of argument and evidence, engageth us in this sort of false judging, when we give ourselves up to it through passion or prejudice.
This is what the passions do in the mind, and it is easy to comprehend the reason St. Peter had to say in this view, fleshly lusts war against the soul.. Certainly one of the noblest advantages of man is to reason, to examine proofs and weigh motives, to consider an object on every side, to combine the various arguments that are alleged either for or against a proposition, in order on these grounds to regulate our ideas and opinions, our hatred and
our love. The passionate man renounces this advantage, he never reasons in a passion, his mind is, limited, his soul is in chains, his fleshly passions war against his soul.
Having examined the passions in the mind, let us consider them in the senses. To comprehend this, recollect what we just now said, that the passions owe their origin to the Creator, who instituted them for the purpose of preserving us. When an object would injure health or life, it is necessary to our safety, that there should be an emotion in our senses to effect a quick escape from the danger; fear does this. A man struck with the idea of sudden danger hath a rapidity, which he could not have in a tranquil state, or during a cool trial of his power. It is necessary, when an enemy approaches to destroy us, that our senses should so move as to animate us with a power of resistance. Anger doth this, for it is a collection of spirits .... but allow me to borrow here the words of a modern philosopher, who hath admirably expressed the motions excited by the passions in our bodies. “ Before the sight of an object of passion, saith he, the spirits were diffused through all the body to preserve every part alike, but on the appearance of this new object the whole system is shaken; the greater part of the animal spirits rush into all the exterior parts of the body, in order to put it into a condition proper to produce such motions as are necessary to acquire the good, or to avoid the evil now present. If it happen that the power of man is unequal to his wants, these same spirits distribute themselves so as to make him utter mechanically certain words and cries, and so as to spread over his countenance and over the rest of his body an air capable of agitating others with the same passion, with which he himself is moved. For as men and other animals