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scanty in its stock of words, appear separately to have added to their speech, partly by new invention, and partly by borrowing from their neighbours, such terms as the progress of knowledge among them required. The accessory parts of languages may have come at length to bear a considerable proportion to the primitive one, or even to exceed it ; and the grammatical construction may have been diversified under different modes of cultivation. Hence arise in the first place varieties of dialect ; but, when the deviation is greater in degree, it constitutes diversity of language. The German and the French are never termed dialects of one speech; and yet, all who compare their respective sources, the old Teutonic and the Latin languages, are aware that, between these, a near and deeply rooted affinity subsists. p. 12.
diced as an example nglish, and Wellavian; while the
There are six dialects of the Celtic family which may be said to survive: five are still spoken, and one of them, the Cornish, is sufficiently preserved in books. These six dialects are, the Welsh (or Kymraeg), the Cornish, the Armorican (or Bas-Bretagne), the Erse, the Gaelic, and the Manks. The former three are relics of the idioms of the ancient Britons; and the Welsh is taken by Dr. Prichard as a sufficient specimen of the Britannic dialects. Of the other three, the Erse or old Irish is generally used as an example. The dialect of the Isle of Man is mixed with Norwegian, English, and Welsh. The Gaelic itself has received a strong tincture of Scandinavian ; while the Erse has probably been mixed with Cantabrian. The Welsh, on the other hand, has been even styled the Celto-Germanic, as having received so large a mixture of German,-possibly from the connexion of the British tribes with the Belgic nation, with whom they have been confounded.
In order to display the affinity which subsists between these dialects and the Sanscrit, Dr. Prichard begins by explaining the principle upon which, more or less, in all the Indo-European languages, a permutation of letters takes place in composition and construction, agreeably to rules originally founded on euphony or on the facility of utterance. In the Greek, Latin, and German dialects, the mutation of consonants is observable chiefly in the formation of compound terms. But in the Sanscrit, words merely in sequence have an influence upon each other, in the change of terminations, and sometimes of initial letters, according to rules which the Sanscrit grammarians term sandhi, conjunction, and which forbid the meeting of consonants of different orders. These rules have been supposed to be in great measure peculiar to the Sanscrit. It is, however, Dr. P. has shewn, a remarkable fact, that in the Celtic dialects, and more especially in the Welsh, permutations in many respects analogous are constant and indispensable in the formation of sentences. It is impossible to bring three or four words together in the Celtic languages, withVOL. VII.- N.S.
out modifications similar in their principle to those of sandhi.' We give two or three examples, taken from the Welsh. Change of guttural.
Change of labial. Pen grör, the head of a man. Câr agos, a near kinsman. Ei ben, his head.
Ei gâr, his kinsman. Ei phen, her head.
Ei châr, her kinsman.
Vy nghâr, my kinsman.
Vy nhậd, my father. In this respect, the Welsh would seem to present a closer relation to the Sanscrit, than any other European language, and one which cannot be resolved into accidental coincidence. Our limits will not allow us to enter into an explanation of the rules according to which these permutations of consonants take place, or of those which equally govern the interchange of particular letters in the derivation of words from one dialect into another. By a comparison of the cardinal numbers in nine Indo-European languages, Dr. Prichard has shewn, that these changes, instead of taking place by a merely accidental variation or corruption, are conformable to certain general laws. For instance, the Greek substitutes for the sibilants and soft palatines of the Sanscrit, the
, T, and a : thus, ashta becomes ontw, and pancha mume or TEVTE. The Welsh makes nearly the same substitutions as the Æolic Greek, using the hard palatines or gutturals for the soft palatines and sibilants; as shash, six, becomes in Welsh, chuech (pronounced khwaikh), and dashan, ten, daig or deg. The Gothic and other Teutonic dialects prefer aspirate consonants, and substitute the simple h in the place of palatines and sibilants; while the Erse and the Latin affect gutturals, and change the Sanscrit sh or ch into c or 9. Thus, in nos becomes equus; TEUTE or pymp, quinque and kuig*. An interchange of p and k regularly takes place between the Welsh and Erse languages; as pen, a head, becomes in Erse, keann ; plant, children, kland; and Påsk, Easter, Kâsg. Other permutations are pointed out by the Author, and are shewn to be regular and systematic, in whatever way they may be accounted for. Similar changes are, in fact, observable in different dialects of the Aramean family, which are the most closely related, and spoken by nations not widely dissevered.
* Yet, sometimes the k was changed by the Latins into p: as lupus for aúxos; spolia for oxuna.
In the third chapter, Dr. P. proceeds to adduce proofs of 'common origin in the vocabulary of the Celtic and other Indo' European languages. Col. Vans Kennedy has collected 100 words in eight languages, in order to shew that the Celtic is totally dissimilar to any other. We shall give three of his instances.
Sans. Greek. Latin. Welsh. Irish. Germ. Arab. Pcrs. Woman. stri. gurn. mulier. guraig. bean. weib. nisa. zăn. Man. nara. a.Ofw Toç, homo. dyn. duine. mann. rajul. mård. Sun. suria. ýmios. sol. haul. grioth. sonne. shams. aftāb.
Now the first of these is selected by Dr. Prichard as an instance of the common origin of words in the Celtic and other languages; and he gives the variations as follows.
Sans. Greek. Russian. Erse. Welsh. Latin. Persian. Women Sjani. gern. jena. gean. vama. Bara.
bean benw. fæmina.
fem. Bean becomes bhean, or vean, in Erse ; as, in Welsh, benw becomes in regimen, venw. In Cornish, woman is benen, which answers to the Gaelic diminutive, beanag, a term of endearment. Gwraig and wraig, cited by Vans Kennedy as the Welsh for woman, is the feminine of gør, and wr, a man; and corresponds to the Latin virago, from vir. The latter word may be thus traced in the different dialects.
Sanscrit. Greek. Latin. Welsh Gaelic and Erse.
narah. aing. Once more, the word signifying sun, takes the following forms in the different dialects.
Sanscrit. Greek. Welsh Cornish. Armor. Lat. Russ. hailih or hailis. A£2005. haul. houl, heul. heol. sol. solnste.
(prond haïl.) Another Sanscrit word for sun, is sunuh ; in which we have the original of the Mæso-Gothic and German sunno and sonne. The Gaelic furnishes the word ial, signifying light or sunshine ; and the word sol, though sunk into disuse, is preserved in the compound solas, sun-light. Grioth, another name for the sun, both in Gaelic and in Erse, and grian, which has the same signification, are possibly related to the Sanscrit suria, and the Greek nup. These instances may suffice to shew, how much closer affinity there may be in the vocabularies of different languages, than a superficial etymologist is able to detect; and how easy it is, by the artifice which Col. Vans Kennedy has employed, -that of selecting the most dissimilar words for the same object, which the various languages will furnish,—to make cognate dialects seem to have little in common.
In his fourth chapter, Dr. Prichard proceeds to adduce further proofs of a common origin, derived from the grammatical structure of the Celtic, as compared with other Indo-European dialects. In the fifth chapter, the comparison is pursued with regard to the personal pronouns, and the personal terminations of verbs ; in the sixth, in relation to the inflection of verbs through tenses and moods; and in the seventh, a very interesting analysis is given of the verb substantive, which, in all the Indo-European languages, is derived from two different roots, and consists, in fact, of two defective verbs; the one expressing present existence, and the other being used to denote the past tenses. There is no language in which both of these verbs are extant in a complete state, but they are least defective in Sanscrit; which has lost many tenses of the verb asmi, from the root as, corresponding to ciui and sum or esse, but has preserved the whole of the verb bhavami, from the root bhu, allied to the old Latin verb fuo, and the Greek pów. The Persian, Slavonian, and Teutonic display, in the substantive verb, the same double formation ; but the Celtic has one of these verbs, bód or bydh, in a more perfect state than any other language except the Sanscrit; while fragments of other defective verbs are in use, in the present tense. Thus, sydh, ys, oes, and yu, are all used in the sense of est, is; besides mae, est, and maent, sunt. In the number of tenses in the active voice, and in having a proper passive voice, the Celtic is richer than the Teutonic.
Dr. Prichard's conclusion, which is as modestly stated as it is ably supported, we give in his own words.
· I have thus laid before my readers the most obvious and striking analogies between the Celtic dialects and the languages which are more generally allowed to be of cognate origin with the Sanscrit, Greek, and Latin. On the facts submitted to them, they will form their own conclusion. Probably, few persons will hesitate in adopting the opi. nion, that the marks of connexion are too decided and extensive to be referred to accident or casual intercourse; that they are too deeply interwoven with the intimate structure of the languages compared, to be explained on any other principle than that which has been admitted by so many writers in respect to the other great families of languages belonging to the ancient population of Europe ; and that the Celtic people themselves are therefore of Eastern origin,-a kindred tribe with the nations who settled on the banks of the Indus, and on the shores of the Mediterranean and of the Baltic. It is probable, that several tribes emigrated from their original scat in different stages of advancement in respect to civilization and language; and we accordingly find their idioms in very different degrees of refinement; but an accurate examination and analysis of the intimate structure and component materials of these languages, is still capable of affording ample proofs of a common origin.' pp. 186, 7.
We have only to add, that, irrespective of the conclusion to
which the Author has conducted us, the volume is highly valuable from the light which it throws upon the European idioms in general, and on the laws, if not the origin, of those variations which form a principal source of perplexity in philological inquiries.
Art. III.-1. The Family Cabinet Atlas, constructed upon an Original
Plan, and engraved on Steel by Mr. Thomas Starling. Cabinet size.
97 maps. Price 30s. plain. . 42s. coloured. London, 1831. 2. The Biblical Series of the Family Cabinet Atlas. Parts I. to VI.
2s. 6d. each ; 3s. 6d. coloured. London, 1831, 1832. THE first Number of this Cabinet Atlas was noticed in our
Journal on its publication; and we then gave our opinion as to the merits of the plan. We are now able to speak with entire approbation of the admirable care, taste, and skill displayed in the execution. The distinctness of delineation preserved in these geographical miniatures, is surprising. Nothing contributes so much to give a clear idea of the general structure of a country, as a boldness and precision in marking the course of the rivers ; and this forms a striking feature of these little maps. The character of the surface, as plain or mountainous, is also carefully indicated. But the great advantage of this cabinet atlas, is, that it brings at once within the compass of the eye, the general outline, situation, and relative geography of a country or kingdom, so as to imprint it on the memory of a tyro or youthful learner, better than by the bewildering expanse of a map of larger dimensions. It serves also as a sort of geographical remembrancer of easy reference; and though, of course, it will not render larger maps less indispensable for the purposes of historical illustration and topographical study, it is well adapted to promote a taste for the study of geography, by the attractive shape so cleverly given to these delineations of its outlines. It will thus not only diffuse very widely a certain degree of important general information, but may lead to a more intelligent and frequent use of maps on a larger scale. We have been particularly pleased with the Tabular Maps, exhibiting the comparative heights of mountains, lengths of rivers, and extent of inland seas and lakes. These have been carefully reduced from large drawings; and small as is the scale, they give an admirable view of the relative proportions. The volume forms a very elegant and useful present; but we cannot understand why a work of such perennial use, should have been advertised as a 'geographical annual.'
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