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from whose side project abrupt masses of rock. Over-head, the wind plays in the garlands of ivy, and the clouds pass swiftly across the deep blue sky. When you reach the centre of the church, whence you look to the four extremities of its cross, you see the two transept windows, nearly as large and as beautiful as the principal one: through each you command a picture perfectly different, but each in the wild and sublime style which harmonizes so perfectly with the building. Immediately around the ruin is a luxuriant orchard. In spring, how exquisite must be the effect of these gray venerable walls rising out of that sea of fragrance and beauty! A Vandal lord and lord-lieutenant of the county conceived the pious design of restoring the church. Happilv, Heaven took him to itself before he had time to execute it.
From Tintern Abbey, the road rises uninterruptedly to a considerable height above the river, which is never wholly out of sight. The country reaches the highest degree of its beauty in three or four miles, at the Duke of Beaufort's villa, called the Moss House. Here are delightful paths, which lead in endless windings through wild woods and evergreen thickets, sometimes on the edge of lofty walls of rock, sometimes through caves fashioned by the hand of Nature, or suddenly emerge on open plateaus to the highest point of this chain of hills, called the Wind-cliff, whence you enjoy one of the most extensive and noble views in England.
At a depth of about eight hundred feet, the steep descent below you presents in some places single projecting rocks; in others, a green bushy precipice. In the valley, the eye follows for several miles the course of the Wye, which issues from a wooded glen on the left hand, curves round a green garden-like peninsula rising into a hill studded with beautiful clumps of trees, then forces its foaming way to the right, along a huge wall of rock nearly as high as the point where you stand, and at length, near Chepstow Castle, which looks like a ruined city, empties itself into the Bristol Channel, where ocean closes the dim and misty distance.
On this side of the river, before you, the peaked tops of a long ridge of hills extend along nearly the whole district which your eye commands. It is thickly clothed with wood, out of which a continuous wall of rock, festooned with ivy, picturesquely rears its head. Over this ridge you again discern water,-the Severn, five miles broad, thronged with a hundred white sails, on either shore of which you see blue ridges of hills full of fertility and rich cultivation.
• The grouping of this landscape is perfect: I know of no picture more beautiful. Inexhaustible in details, of boundless extent, and yet marked by such grand and prominent features, that confusion and monotony, the usual defects of a very wide prospect, are completely avoided. Piercefield Park, which includes the ridge of hills from Wind-cliff to Chepstow, is therefore without question the finest in England, at least for situation. It possesses all that Nature can bestow ; lofty trees, magnificent rocks, the most fertile soil, a mild climate favourable to vegetation of every kind, a clear foaming stream, the vicinity of the sea, solitude, and, from the bosom of its own tranquil seclusion, a view into the rich country I have described, which receives a lofty interest from a ruin the most sublime that the imagination of the finest painter could conceive,- I mean Chepstow Castle. It covers five acres of ground, and lies close to the park on the side next the town, though it does not belong to it'
Vol. II. pp. 189–192.
Art. V. Liberia ; or the Early History and Signal Preservation of
the American Colony of Free Negroes on the coast of Africa. Compiled from American Documents. By William Innes. 18mo.
pp. 152. Edinburgh, 1831. AT Cape Mount, where the western coast of Africa begins to 4 trend to the south-east, commences what is usually called the Windward Coast. This is again divided into the Grain Coast, terminating at Cape Palmas; the Ivory Coast, extending from that point to the mouth of the Lagos; and the coast of Adoo, terminating at the mouth of the Assinee. On that part of the Grain Coast which has been called the kingdom of Cape Mount, but which appears to be divided among several petty tribes, has been founded the American colony, composed of Africo-Americans and liberated Africans, to which has been given the name of Liberia. Monrovia, the chief settlement, is situated half a mile from the mouth of the river Mesurado (Mont-Serado), about two miles within the extremity of the cape of that name. The district of country which comes more especially within the influence of the Colony, extends from the river Gullinas, about 100 miles N.w. of Monrovia, as far eastward as the Kroo country; but the proper territory of Liberia terminates south-eastward at the mouth of the Junk river, the head-waters of which approach those of the Montserado, so as to leave only a very nar. row strip of high land between them ; and the streams flowing in opposite directions, at the back of the territory, almost isolate it from the main land. The width of this peninsular tract in no part exceeds one league, between the rivers and the ocean, and in many places is narrowed to half that distance. Its length is about twelve leagues. The purchase of this tract, called the Montserado, or Mamba territory, was effected in 1821, by the American Colonization Society, the origin of which will be best explained by the following circular statement put forth by the Society, and addressed to the British public.
So far back as 1698, the Assembly of Pennsylvania, to put an end to the introduction of slaves, laid å duty of i0l. per head, upon their importation ; but this benevolent law, together with about fifty of similar tenor, which were passed by the neighbouring colonies up to the period of their Revolution, were all refused the sanction of the mother country. In their declaration of Independence, dated July 4th, 1776, the introduction of slaves was one of the great causes of complaint.
Scarcely had that struggle ceased, when a Colony on the coast of Africa, similar to that of Liberia, was proposed; but the prosecution of the Slave Trade, by every civilized Power, defeated these benevolent views. In 1796, the plan was again revived in a series of luminous Essays by Gerard T. Hopkins, a distinguished friend in Baltimore; and shortly afterwards, the legislature of Virginia, a State containing nearly one-third of the black population of the Union, pledged its faith to give up all their slaves, provided the United States could obtain a proper asylum for them. President Jefferson negotiated in vain for a territory either in Africa or Brazil ; but that great State again renewed its pledge in 1816, by a vote of 190 to 9, (most of the members being slave-holders,) upon which, Gen. C. F. Mercer, the Wilberforce of the American Congress, opened a correspondence with the philanthropists of the different States, which led to the formation of the AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY, on the 1st of January, 1817.
• The great objects of that Society, were- the final and entire abolition of slavery, providing for the best interests of the blacks, by establishing them in independence upon the coast of Africa; thus constituting them the protectors of the unfortunate natives against the inhuman ravages of the slaver, and seeking, through them, to spread the lights of civilization and Christianity among the fifty millions who inbabit those dark regions. To meet the views of all parties, they had a most difficult path to tread; but, as all legislation on the subject of slavery was specially reserved to the respective Slates by the Articles of Confederation, and had become the basis of the Constitution of the United States, they very wisely, instead of denouncing an evil which they had not the power to overthrow, had recourse to the more sure, but gradual mode of removing it, by enlightening the consciences, and convincing the judgements, of the slave-holders. Their theory is justified by experience ; for while our little colony has grown quite as fast as could be wished for by its most judicious friends, these principles have been silently gaining ground in the slave States, yet so rapidly, that the number of slaves offered gratuitously by benevolent owners, exceed ten-fold the present means of the Society to receive and convey them to Africa. The disposition of Virginia has been already shewn. Delaware and Kentucky have also proved their anxiety to concur in so noble a cause; and Dr. Ayres, the earliest Governor of Liberia, now a resident of Maryland, asserts “ that, owing to the plans and principles of colonization being better understood, in less than twenty years there will be no more slaves born in that State.”
"A party in South Carolina is now almost the only opponent that the Society has at home ; and, as if to afford the most incontestible evidence that its plan will destroy the institution of slavery in the United States, they ground their opposition upon the inevitable tendency of colonization to eradicate slave-holding, and thereby deprive them of their property.
. But if the present means of the Society are inadequate to effect its purposes, it will be recollected that only eight years have elapsed since Cape Messurado, then a mart for the sale of 10,000 fellow.creatures annually, was purchased from the natives; that unhallowed
traffic has been entirely destroyed ; a flourishing colony of 2000 emancipated slaves has been founded ; churches, schools, commerce, and even a newspaper established ; and the confidence of the Aborigines so completely won, that 10,000 of them are, as allies of this new republic, participating in the blessings of civilization and religion.
The difficulties and dangers with which the infant settlement had to contend, as detailed by Mr. Ashmun, the first Colonial Agent, were such as to render its preservation a signal instance of Providential interposition; and a strong confidence in the • superintending providence of the Most High,' was the only principle that could have sustained the courage and fortitude of the little band of colonists. Yet, rarely has a first settlement been successfully established with less expenditure of life and treasure; and in no instance, perhaps, have such results been produced in so short a time under similar disadvantages. The first colony of Virginia, torn by internal feuds, and exposed to frequent attacks from the savages, was repeatedly on the verge of extinction, and barely maintained a feeble existence, with the aid of foreign supplies. In the year 1624, after more than 150,0001. had been expended, and more than 9000 persons had been sent from England, its population did not exceed 1800 persons. Or, to state an instance more directly in point, at the end of the first twenty years of the settlement at Sierra Leone, in 1807, the total population amounted to only 1871 persons. The colony of Liberia was commenced, ten years ago, upon a much humbler scale ; the number of the first settlers (so as we can make it out from the indistinct narrative) being only 166, of whom twenty fell victims to the climate soon after their arrival. At one time, the numerical force of the settlers was reduced to thirty-five effective persons, including six native youths. The colony now includes above 1500 ` free people of colour, enjoying perfect se“curity, possessing abundance of the necessaries and comforts of ‘life, and in the full exercise of all the rights and privileges of 'freemen. The latest intelligence of the state of the colony, is contained in the following letter from Governor Mechlin, dated Liberia, Feb. 21st, 1831.
• The prospects of the Colony were never brighter than at present. The improvements in commerce, agriculture, buildings, &c., during my short visit to the United States, have been astonishingly great, and far exceeded my most sanguine expectations. In Monrovia alone, upwards of twenty-five substantial stone and frame dwelling-houses have been erected within the short space of tive months, and many others are in progress; and should nothing intervene to interrupt our present advancement, our little town will, ere long, be one of the most desirable places of resort on the western coast of Africa. I have been informed by a captain recently from the leeward, that there is, at present, much more business done at this place, than at any of the old
European Settlements on the Gold Coast. That our commerce has greatly increased, will be rendered evident by comparing the marine list contained in the Herald of the present month, with that of any of the preceding.
Our agricultural interests, I am credibly informed, (for my health and multiplied duties have not permitted me to examine for myself,) have advanced “ pari passu";---indeed, the spirit of improvement appears to have gone abroad in the colony, and the people seem to be awakened to the importance of more fully developing the resources of the country, than has hitherto been done.
"Our influence over the native tribes in our vicinity is rapidly extending; and since my return, several have made application to be received under our protection, offering to subject themselves to our laws;
or, as they expressed it-“ They want to be made Americans, and to be allowed to call themselves Americans". This is, I can assure you, deemed no small privilege. In one or two instances, their request has been acceded to; in others, it has been thought inexpedient to grant it, in consequence of their remote situation rendering it impossible for us to afford them protection, without involving ourselves in endless and ruinous disputes with the natives; but as soon as prudence will warrant, they shall be admitted as part of the community. This mode of proceeding, I find to be the most effectual of civilizing them; for as soon as they consider themselves as subjects of Liberia, they visit us more freely, and by associating with the colonists, insensibly adopt our manners and customs, and gradually, from being ignorant pagans, become civilized, and Christians.
. We have at present among our re-captured Africans, many who, on their arrival here, were scarcely a remove, in point of civilization, from the native tribes around us, but who are at present as pious and devoted servants of Christ, as you will meet in any community; and, by their walk and conversation, afford an example worthy of imitation. They have a house for public worship, and Sunday Schools established, which are well attended, and their church is regularly supplied every Sunday from among our own clergy. These people I consider as forming one admirable medium of communication or link between the savage natives and the civilized colonists from the United States ; and will, I have no doubt, prove a powerful means of spreading the light of Christianity and civilization over this benighted country.
Our schools have hitherto becn in rather a languishing condition ; but I have great hopes, ere long, to carry into operation the system of education lately adopted by the Board of Managers; and with the view of rendering the burthen as light as possible to the Society, a law has recently been passed by the Agent and Council, taxing all the real estate in the colony, at the rate of 50 cents in the hundred dollars, which tax is to be exclusively devoted to the support of public schools ; the amount thus raised, together with the proceeds of sales of public lands, as well as the duties on spirituous liquors, will do much towards accomplishing this important object; and if my health should continue to improve, I trust soon to be enabled to announce, that all in the colony are enjoying the advantages of education.