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31. What experiments have you made to show the relative value of potatoes, turnips and other root crops, compared with Indian corn, or other grain, for feeding animals, either for fattening or for milk?
FRUIT. 32. What is the number of your apple trees ? Are they of natural or grafted fruit ? and chiefly of what varieties?
33. What number and kind of fruit trees, exclusive of apples, have you ? and what are among the best of each kind?
34. What insects have attacked your trees, and what method do you use to prevent their attacks?
35. What is your general management of fruit trees?
36. What other experiments or farm operations have produced interesting or valuable results?
FENCES, BUILDINGS, &c. 37. What is the number, size and general mode of construction of your farm buildings, and their uses?
38. What kind of fences do you construct? What is the amount and length of each kind? and their cost and condition? Have you constructed any wire fence ? if so what has been its cost, and what its advantages, and how made ?
39. To what extent are your various farming operations guided by accurate weighing and measuring? and to what degree of minuteness are they registered by daily accounts?
40. Do you keep regular farm accounts? Can you state the annual expense in improving your farm, and the income from it, with such precision that you can at the end of the year, strike an accurate balance of the debt and credit? Would not this practice conduce very much to close observation, careful farming, and in the end much improve your system, as well as better your fortune?
41. Give the annual receipts and expenditures on your farm, specifying each.
DESCRIPTION OF HaywarD PLACE AND THE MANNER OF CULTIVATION.
The property of Nathaniel Hayward and Son. This farm is situate in the town of Brighton and county of Monroe, one mile and forty-seven rods east of Rochester city, on the Rochester and Webster plank road, and may be called Hayward Place—having occupied it for the last twenty-eight years. When purchased it was all wood land, and all woods, excepting twelve acres partly chopped over, and a log cabin the only building it could boast of. Ten acres were purchased five years since, at a cost of $100 per acre. The farm is well watered, having two durable streams, and three good wells. To the questions proposed we would respectfully offer the following answers:
Soils, &c. 1. Our farm consists of 78 acres, 68 acres improved, 7 covered with wood, and 3 taken for roads and buildings, and no waste land.
2. The soil is various. The high land is a yellow chestnut loam, mixed with gravel and some stones; subsoil, hardpan and gravel. The low lands are black muck and marl, and a clay subsoil. There is some lime stone below the surface, and large boulders of granite, quartz, and hornblende rocks above.
3. The best method of improving the high land is macure, ter and clover. The muck land, drain and work thoroughly, mixing the muck, marl and clay together, and apply a little long manure. There is no clear sandy or clayey soils on the farm.
4. We plow from 7 to 10 inches deep; deep plowing has invariably, after the first year, increased the crops.
5. We have never experimented with shallow plowing; are satisfied with deep plowing:' Our method of breaking up sward land, is a double 'team Eagle No. 20 plow and three men, one to drive, one to hold plow, and one follow after with a crow bar, and dig all stones that the plow uncovers; plow at the rate of half an acre
per day. This, we think, is the cheapest method, for we rid ourselves of the trouble of working over so many stones, and break up very deep, from 10 to 12 inches.
6. We have not used the sub-soil plow; have drained some low lands, with decidedly beneficial results. The land was too wet to raise corn, but by constructing under drains it has been made dry enough for garden purposes. Our under drains are made of stone, by laying cobble stones at the sides and cover with flat stones, then fill in with small stones on the top, then a litle straw or some shavings, and cover with dirt. The size of the drain depends on the quantity of water, some we have 2 feet wide and two feet deep, and stoned so as to leave a drain below six inches square. Where but little water is to be drawn off cobble stones thrown in loose, and covered as above, answers a good purpose. We have about sixty or eighty rods of both kinds at a cost of from four to eight shillings per rod. We have about eighty rods of open ditches, there being too much water for the other kinds; these require to be cleaned out once in two or three years, and cost six cents per rod.
7. The trees indigenous to our soil are beech, birch, hard and soft maple, iron-wood, hickory, bass-wood, white-wood, chestnut, white and black ash, white and black oak and elm. Plants : catnip, thoroughwort, wild turnip, sweet flag, peppermint, narrow dock, poke weed, mandrake, strawberry and genseng, and many others.
MANURES. 8. The number of loads of manure applied per acre, depends entirely on the number of acres to be manured and the quantity on hand; usually from 20 to 40 per acre; we usually clean our yards twice a year, spring and fall; haul out in the fall, and plow under for spring crops ; sometimes pile it and have it well rotted for spring; prefer to have it plowed under in the fall, and save all the gases that otherwise would escape; in the spring, haul out and plow under; we have no cellars for manures, and it is not kept under cover.
9. Our means for making manure, is from the stock and straw on the farm; haul from the city of Rochester from 100 to 300 loads per year, at a cost of from 121 to 25 cents per load; we manufacture from 100 to 150 loads per year, and apply from two to 400 annually.
10. We apply manure mostly in two ways.
1st. In a rotten state, for most hoed crops, spread on top and plowed under; sometimes spread after the ground is plowed, and cultivated in with a wheel cultivator. The latter method starts the crops quickest, and is more beneficial to the first crop, but does not last as long, loosing some of its good properties by exposure to the sun.
2nd. Apply in its unfermented state on low lands; for all root crops we prefer to have it well rotted and spread evenly over the surface, pulverized with a harrow and plowed under in the spring, when it cannot be done in the fall. For corn we prefer unfermented manure, when it can be plowed under; when used as a top dressing, we prefer to have it composted and cultivated in.
11. There is no method by which we can increase the supply of manure cheaper, than hauling from the city. We think that muck taken from the low lands, on the chestnut loam would be beneficial, but have not experimented.
12. We have used some lime, ashes and plaster as a top dressing for corn.
Ashes applied to corn after the first hoeing, at the rate of a small handful to a hill; plaster applied as soon as it comes up, table spoonful to a hill; lime, ashes and plaster mixed together, and put a small handful in the hill dropped with the potatoes to prevent their decay; cannot say this prevented the rot, but we have not lost a crop for four years; never lost butone. The corn showed the difference during the summer by its green look and thrifty growth; cannot state the difference at harvesting.
TILLAGE AND CROPS. 13. We have tilled the past year 40 acres, occupied with the following crops and quantity of each: wheat, 224 acres; potatoes, 4; corn, 3); seeds, 3}; oats, 21; barley, ); carrots, 1 ; beets, & ; onions, 11
14. The quantity of wheat sown per acre last season, was 13 bushels; we think two bushels little enough ; sowed mostly Soules, and a little Mediterranean on low lands, and sowed from the 4th to the 19th of September; average product 20 bushels per acre. The above crop was all sown after other crops, viz: corn, potatoes, wheat and grass. The grass land, containing 6 acres, was plowed once in August, with a double team, (oxen and horses,) and harrowed soon after. The 5th of September began to cultivate it with wheel cultivator, commenced sowing the 6th, and cultivated in the seed, and finished sowing the 9th ; after cultivating, the harrow was passed once over the field to smooth it; water furrows plowed once in seven or eight paces. The wire worm and June grass, injured this field very much, and at harvesting produced 15 bushels per acre. Twelve and a half acres were sown after wheat, plowed once the last of August and 1st of September, and a good crop of young clover plowed under; soon after it was harrowed and cultivated thoroughly and sown as above stated, produced 21 bushels per acre. We have often raised 30 bushels, but last fall was very dry, and it was sown too thinly, which lessened the crop 5 bushels per acre, at least ; four acres were after hoed crops, plowed once, harrowed and cultivated thoroughly, produced at harvesting about 100 bushels, or 25 bushels per acre. One and a half acres of it was low ground, and produced only 22 bushels. Our wheat was all sown by hand, and harvested with a hand cradle, at the rate of 21 acres per day, each man. We have been troubled some with the insect, which is found just above the first joint, near the ground, about one-eighth of an inch long and bla«k, very much resembling a black lettuce seed; it causes the wheat to fall down before it is ripe, consequently not coming to full maturity, and thereby lessening the yield per acre. We never have found a remedy for the above described insect; we never have been troubled with smut;