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with a vegetabļe boiler in one end, a vegetable cellar below, and corn loft above; No. 6, hay-press barn; No. 7, cow stable, with large hay loft above; No. 8, grain barn, with cellar under the whole of it for vegetables; No. 9, hay-barn and carriage house ; No. 12, water trough, water brought a quarter of a mile, by a hydraulic ram 60 feet below the level of the buildings; No. 13, pump; No. 14, cistern; No. 15, water for the garden; No. 10, orchard ; No. 11, fruit yard; No. 16, road.
Personally appeared before me, B. B. Kirtland, and being sworn, says, the contents of the above statement are true, according to nis belief.
B. B. KIRTLAND. Sworn before me, this 22d? day of January, 1822,
GEORGE LAGRANGE, Commissioner of Deeds.
ALBERT G. FORD'S FARM.
Fairfield, Herkimer County.
Soils, &c. 1. My farm consists of 130 acres, 25 in wood land, 10 waste land, 95 improved.
2. The soil on the hilly portion of my farm is black muck resting on black slate; the more level part consists of a dark gravelly and I might say some spots rather loamy soil, resting on a lightish colored marl; no lime stone on my farm; rocks grey flint, roundish in shape.
3. I treat the different soils much in the same manner. When any portion of my grass land does not produce well I plow it up, manure it well and plant it with corn, the next season sow it with oats or barley and seed it with timothy and clover.
4. Plow eight inches in depth. I think deep plowing a first rate operation on any soil.
5. I have made no experiment to test the difference in a succeeding crop between shallow, common, or deep plowing.
6. I have not used the sub-soil plow; there is no part of my land that requires draining.
7. Beech, maple, birch, elms, red and white, white ash, basswood, butternut, hemlock, milk weed, thistle, mullein, wild turnip and poke weed are indigenous to my soil.
MANURES. 8. Put about twenty loads to the acre, (thirty bushels per load.) I draw out the principal part of my manure in the winter as fast as it is made, laying it on newly seeded grass lands as · soon as it is thawed in the spring; spread it evenly on the ground, then take a heavy bush and give it a thorough bushing, which will pulverize the manure and work it in among the grass roots, and leave the surface perfectly smooth and even. There is no cellar under my barn.
9. I have no means of making manure except what is made by the stock kept on the place, and by throwing out coarse fodder during the winter into the barn-yard, which I have scraped up into piles during the spring. I make two hundred loads yearly, and apply the same.
10. I refer to the answer to the eighth question for a part of the answer to this. As I till but a few acres I put the largest part of my manure on grasslands; I prefer using it in a fresh state for grasslands.
11. I think I could increase my supply of manure by a little extra labor.
12. I use plaster, but no lime, guano, or salt; I sow about two bushels to the acre; sow it with a machine made expressly for the business. The result of sowing plaster is: I get first rate fresh and tender feed for cows during the whole season; I think I keep one fourth more stock than I could if I did not use it.
TILLAGE CROPS. 13. I till from four to six acres usually; the one-half is planted with corn and potatoes, and the remainder sown with oats or barley.
14. Corn: bushel is sufficient to plant one acre; I plant in rows three feet by 31, from 4 to 6 kernels in a hill; plant the middle of May, if the season will admit; manure it in the hill with hog manure; weed it as soon as it up sufficiently to follow the rows with a cultivator; three or four weeks after give it a hilling. As soon as it is sufficiently matured, cut it up and put it into shocks, say 16 to 20 hills to the shock, let it stand 3 or 4 four weeks, then draw to the barn for husking; corn managed in this way will produce from fifty to eighty bushels per acre; I have raised eighty-four bushels to the acre; last season was a very poor season for raising corn. Oats : sow 2ļ to 3 bushels to the acre, sow the first of May; usual product 50 bushels per acre. My crops have not been injured by insects; I can give no estimate of fertilizing matter, taken from the soil by one acre of wheat, as I raise none.
15. I prefer hog manure for corn, one shovel full is sufficient for two or three hills.
16. I should prefer shallow plowing in manure, for any grain crop except corn, on my land ; when I manure plow-land, I frequently spread it on the surface, and harrow it in with the soil, and with first rate success.
17. My potatoes have been affected for several years past, with what is called the potato rot; I have not been able to discover the cause or found any remedy.
GRASS LANDS, &c. 18. I use timothy and clover ; sow 12 quarts timothy and four pounds of clover to the scre; I sow in the spring, at the time of sowing other spring grain ; harrow the ground once over after sowing the seed, then roll it with a roller ; I think timothy and clover are the best for dairy purposes.
19. Mow from thirty to thirty-three acres; for three seasons the average crop has been from two to three tons per acre; cut as soon as it is in the blow, when the weather is fair, what is mown in the forenoon spread out evenly on the ground, and before the dew falls, it is raked up and put into cocks; the next day it is spread out again, turned before dinner; in the afternoon it is taken to the barn. I frequently cut two crops of grass in one season,
on land that has been newly seeded and highly manured; I cut some this season, that would turn from one and a half to two tons per acre.
20. My mowing land is all suitable for the plow; when any portion does not produce well, I plow it up, take two crops and seed it again.
21. I have not practiced watering meadow or other land; for two or three years past, we have had plenty of water, and sometimes almost too much for the good of the crop, without irrigating.
22. I have no low, bog or peat lands.
23. I have not succeeded in destroying the weeds from my farm, we have a great variety in this section, the Canada thistle is one of the worst that I have to contend with; I have desdestroyed several patches of them by cutting them off two inches below the surface of the ground, once a month from June till October; I cut all noxious weeds, before they become mature enough to seed.
DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 24. I keep thirty cows, four yearling heifers, six spring calves, one span of three year old geldings that have done the farm work since last spring, the stock is all native breed.
25. I have made no experiments to show the relative value of different breeds of cattle for dairying, I think the native breed quite as good if not superior to any other breed that I am acquainted with.
26. I stable my cattle during the winter and feed nothing but hay; stables should be made warm, my stable floors are fixed with a drop, so that when the cows lie down they are kept perfectly dry; they should have plenty of water to go to, this is the cheapest way to winter cattle in this section.
24. For two seasons past I have made about 20,000 lbs of cheese annually, last year it exceeded that amount, this year it will fall a little short; make between four and five hundred pounds of butter to sell, besides what is used in the family; milk thirty cows, one two year old heifer included in the number.
Mode of Manufacture of Cheese.—The night's milking is strained in the cheese tub, when the weather is warm, a part is dipped up into pans, a tin cooler filled with cold water is placed in the tub, and is kept there till the water becomes warm, when it is removed ; in the morning what cream there is taken off the morning's milk is strained into the tub and a part of the night's milk is warmed so as to raise the temperature in the tub to 80°, the rennet is then put in and the milk is well stirred, the tub should be covered up; it then stands 45 minutes, it sometimes takes one hour to curdle the milk, the curd is then broken up with a curd braker, it should stand a few minutes to settle, we then dip off a few pans of whey and put it a heating, the curd in the tub is then broken up again with the hand, then whey off again, keep on with the operation until the curd is worked sufficiently fine for the first scalded whey; the first whey is warmed to 110 degreees, it is then dipped out and put on the curd; the curd should be stirred while the whey is dipped on; we then dip off another cooler full and heat for scalding the last time; the last whey is heated so as to raise the temperature in the tub to 98 degrees; the curd should remain and scald till it will squeak well when it is taken between the teeth and chewed; when the weather is warm, after the curd is scalded sufficiently, we dip off most of the whey in the tub, and then put three or four pails of cooling whey in with the curd; the curd is then dipped in a sink for draining; the curd should be well stirred, to keep it from adhering; when it has done draining, we put one gill of salt to 18 pounds of curd; the curd is put into the hoop and well pressed for 24 hours; the cream taken off the milk in the morning, is made into butter, except a short time in the warmest part of the season.
28 & 29. I keep no sheep.
30. I usually winter from four to six hogs; they are a cross on the Berkshire and Snowball breed. In winter I keep a tub in my cellar, put the slops of the kitchen and shorts into it, and in this way I winter my hogs very cheap; when we commence making cheese, feed them the whey, and a few shorts, say one-half bushel per day for what hogs and pigs I keep; I keep my hogs till they are about [Ag. Trans. 1852.]