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This kind of drain drains the land well and quickly, except that I find it somewhat liable to clog or stop up, either from the wash of earth by the water or from the digging of rats, meadow moles or mice; this I regard as a very serious objection to stone drains, as it is a difficult thing to find the precise locality of such obstructions or remove them, as a little experience will convince any one. In the fall of 1849 I procured of 2 inch horse-shoe tile sufficient to lay about 220 rods, which were laid on a side hill, the principal drains passing down the hill in an oblique or angling direction, entering a cross drain so that they all terminated at one outlet, these have operated well and drained the land effectually, (having been laid at about 50 feet apart,) except that in two or three places they became obstructed by sand and gravel that had washed down by the current of water and filled the tile, these obstructions, however, were much more readily discovered and more easily removed than those in the stone drains. In the spring of 1850 I purchased the pipes or round tiles, and during the season constructed 1,350 rods of drain and in 1851 I laid 1,240 rods, and for the purpose of giving a more definite idea of the form of their construction I herewith annex a diagram, as near as may be, (without claiming to be precise,) of the drains laid in two fields, one of which was laid in 1850, and the other in 1851. The drains are made 21 feet deep, and wherever we find a slight elevation extending a short distance only, it is made deeper in order to have the inclination of the bottom as even as possible so that they average something more than 21 feet deep. Having the drains thus opened and the tiles being distributed along the bank, they are laid in by a man who commencing at the upper end of the ditch walks backward down the same, placing the tiles in their places as he goes, which may be done very rapidly, a good hand laying at the rate of 500 to 600 rods per day; being sure they lie in a firm, unmovable position, then place a small quantity of straw or grass over the tile along the drains previous to filling with earth in order to prevent any fine dirt from falling through the crevices into the tiles. In filling the ditches put in first the earth which was taken from the surface as this is more open and [Ag. Trans., 1852.]
loose and the water will always more readily find its way through it to the tile below, and to do this the more readily, in throwing out the earth put the surface soil on one side and the sub-soil or hardpan on the other. In bringing one drain into another I never unite them at right angles but always aim to have the upper side angle much the smallest, so that the water coming from one into the other shall obstruct the current of water in either or both as little as possible, and for this purpose I frequently form an angle in the side drain a short distance above its union with the other, so as to unite them at any angle desired, and at this junction or connecting point I break one or two tiles, if necessary, in such manner as to permit the two upper branches to unite as well with the lower one as possible, and in the form of the forked branches of a tree, and to secure this connection more perfectly, some tile, pieces of tile, or stones are carefully laid in about this point and for several feet below, so that if all the water from the side drain does not readily enter the other at the precise point contemplated, it will find access from among the stones, &c., just below.
Having thus united several small drains, it becomes necessary to lay a larger tile in the drain below, to carry away all the water furnished by the several small drains above, now united in one; this is first enlarged by using a 3 inch tile in place of the 2 inch used above, then still further down, and after other drains shall have been united by a 4 inch pipe, and then perhaps a 4 inch and 2 inch side by side, and so on according to the number, extent and capacity of the smaller drains that empty into it, and in one instance, I thus enlarged one principal drain, till it consisted of 3 four inch tile placed in one ditch, and many times during the year past, I have seen them all discharging water to the extent of their capacity, thus affording to those who have witnessed it, and who doubted their successful operation, a satisfactory demonstration of their practical utility, which no amount of'merely theoretical illustration and argument could have equalled, and I doubt not that the outlet of about five hundred rods of my drain, terminating as it does by the road side, and coming from
land apparently as dry as any other, will do more to convince those who shall notice it, of their great value, than the reading of all the books that have ever been written on that subject, numerous and valuable as they may be. I greatly prefer the round pipes to stones or the horse shoe tile, they are less liable to settle into the ground in soft places than the horse shoe tile, as there is no channel of water under them to wear away the earth, so as to allow them to move from their original position, and there is no possibility of their becoming filled up with earth by mice or meadow moles; they are also much less likely to be broken by handling, or in transporting them from place to place. My small or upper drains are of 2 inch pipes, and are enlarged below as before mentioned. I have purchased the greater share of my tile at Waterloo, (30 miles distant,) but the very large ones, or all sizes larger than two inch, I get to the best advantage at Albany. As many drains should terminate and pass out at one outlet as possible, so as to require but little care to see that they are always unobstructed, and this outlet should be of wood or stone, (I prefer wood,) so that the tile will not be exposed to frost when wet, which they will not withstand; one of these drains takes away the water from my barn cellar, and another from the cellar under my house, and a third one the waste water from about the well; and to furnish water for my stock in the fields, I have dug a well 6 to 8 feet deep, and found a durable supply of water, which I carry out far enough down the hill or slope, to bring it above the surface of the ground and into a cask, by means of a lead pipe, which is laid in the same ditch with the tile; after getting a short distance from the well or fountain, the surplus waters from this cask or tub, (for there is constantly a half inch stream running in and out of it,) runs again down the outside of the tub into a tile drain below, which passes under the cask, leaving all about the cask entirely dry; the fountain is stoned up like a well, within two feet of the surface of the ground, and covered over, first with a large flat stone, and then with earth, so that it is entirely obscured and out of the way. I have three such watering places on my farm, and the cost additional to my drains, does