Sivut kuvina

not exceed ten dollars each on the average. Their real value, I will not attempt to estimate.

The two inch tile cost at Waterloo, $10 per 1000, freight by railroad and waggons, $1.50 per 1000; a thousand lays about 75 rods, so that the cost of tile per rod is about 19 cents, add one cent per rod for laying in the tile and the straw, makes the tile when laid, cost 20 cents per rod. I pay my workmen 20 cents per rod for digging and filling, so that the cost of the drain with the two inch tile is about 40 cents per rod, and with a 4 inch tile about 56 cents. The laborer who does this work, (for one man does about all of it,) clears through the whole season about $1.37 cents per day; and as an evidence that the sub-soil is hard, I will mention that the sharpening of the picks for the 1,200 rods, cost over $5; and this fact, taken in connection with the wages he earned, will show, that he is such a laborer as is seldom found, and I may say that his equal I have never found ; his name is Timothy McGarvy, and should not be omitted in this article.

Some of the advantages derived from draining, are that the ground becomes about as dry in two or three days after the frost comes out in the spring, or after a heavy rain, as it would do in as many weeks before draining; enabling the farmer to work his land at almost any time he may desire to do so; it also dries it uniformly alike, all over the field, so that in plowing, he does not find spots of wet and dry, but is all in good condition at once; it causes the lowest places, which were generally too wet at seed time, and consequently produced but little if any crop, to produce the best of any part of the field, being generally the richest soil, from having had the wash of the surface of the land about it for many years.

Some of the land I first drained had been planted with young orchard trees, and in the wettest places some trees died the first winter, and a greater number the second; and some young nur, sery trees on the same ground were nearly thrown out of the ground by the frost.

After draining it, I replaced the orchard trees, and all have grown well, and the first crop of nursery trees which I was compelled to remove to save them, before draining, have been replaced by others since draining, and they have succeeded perfectly; so that I may now well say, that if we desire to deprive Jack Frost of his power to do us harm, we should keep everything as dry as possible which is within his reach and liable to injury. And I am from my own experience fully convinced that for whatever crop, and especially any crop liable to be injured by frost in winter, such as wheat, clover, &c., whether the season be wet or dry; if the soil retains its moisture too long at any season of the year, (and most soils do,) it will be materially benefited by draining, and in fact I am well convinced that most of the winter-killed young fruit trees, especially the Peach, in many places, as well as the winter killing of many valuable shrubs, vines and ever-greens, which survive the winter in some places in this latitude, and are destroyed in others, is more to be attributed to excessive moisture in the soil during cold weather than to all other causes combined. I will only estimate the increased value of the land, by saying that I have the past year, made over 1,200 rods on 20 acres, at a cost of about $25 per acre; and that I should not permit such land to remain without such draining, even were the expense doubled. Most of the lands so drained have been purchased by me immediately preceding the construction of the drains, and their very recent construction precludes the possibility of giving the specific and comparative productive capacity before and after draining; though on much of it very light crops have been grown for many years past, and no good crop of wheat has been raised on it for a long time; but the reason has not heretofore, to my knowledge, been ascribed to an excess of water, which I believe to have been the principal cause of the non-productiveness of the land. From the experience of two seasons on the small quantity first drained, I am of the opinion that the increased value of the land is much greater than the cost of constructing the drains, but more time is needed to fully test with accuracy the benefits to result therefrom.

In explanation of the diagram of the 20 acre field, 0. 0. O. are the outlets to the drains, of which there are about 1,200 rods in the field, and the tiles and size of the drains are about as follows: from A. to B., say three 4-inch pipes; from B. to C., two 3-inch pipe: from C. to D., a 3 and 1-inch pipe; from D. to E., one 3-inch pipe, and further up in every direction one 2-inch pipe. The shaded or clouded portions, are ridges of ground, too high to cut through conveniently, and leave the bottom of the ditch a good slope. I omit the other diagram referred to, believing this one will fully explain every principle to which I have referred. The watering tubs alluded to contain about 100 gallons each, and never freeze over, owing to constant overflowing.

Thus I have in three years constructed over nine miles of drain of the three kinds herein named, on land which most farmers thought unnecessary to drain, and which they felt assured could not be drained with profit. But notwithstanding, I doubt not the result will be not only a source of profit to myself, but a great inducement to many others to go about the work themselves.

Thus I have rather hastily thrown together the result of my practical experience on this subject, which is respectfully submitted for your consideration.



There were submitted to the Committee two plans for their adjudication-one by Moses Eames of Jefferson county, the other by Paris Barber of Cortland county. Both of these plans exhibit much convenience in their arrangements and in the economy and durability of their construction.

The plan submitted by Mr. Eames, in the curing room, we think, far superior to that of Mr. Barber, as it affords sufficient room on

counters for keeping and curing his whole dairy through the entire season, is ceiled with boards from the floor to the top of the rasters well matched and made tight, which permits of no substance falling upon the surface of the cheese, there being no floor between the roof and the counters, it also permits of a pure and more free circulation of air, which we consider all important in the curing process.

The plan submitted by Mr. Barber, in some respects we consider superior to that of Mr. Eames, more particularly in the arrangement of his outside buildings. The milking sheds and barn for wintering his cows meet the full approbation of your Committee, they being constructed in a most durable, convenient and economical manner. The miode of saving manure practised by Mr. Bar-, ber is an important consideration in the construction and arrangement of his buildings. The Committee would therefore recommend a premium of twenty-five dollars each to Mr. Eames and Barber for their separate plans. Although we do not deem them perfect in all respects, they show great improvement from the ordinary arrangements of buildings erected for these purposes, and we cheerfully recommend the above premiums.

The Committee would notice with much approbation a plan of the Dairy House of Mr. Horace Clapp, of Lewis county, which they examined and which is most perfect in its arrangements, and is well worthy the examination of all interested in the dairy busi

As it was not submitted for a premium and was not accompanied with any estimates of expense, the Committee can only express their approbation of the plan.


Cheese House of Moses Eames, Jefferson county. The Cheese House, of which a plan is here given, is first planked with 1} inch plank and clapboarded upon the outside, and the inside is ceiled from the floor to the ridge. The advantage of ceiling is that it will be drier in damp weather and cooler in warm weather. The house is up from the ground from one to three feet, which allows

a free passage for air under it. There is also a window in each gable end, which will admit of ventilation when required.

The cheese room, is eight feet high, (one story,) and 50 by 22 feet, with an addition of 17 hy 24 feet, on one side for a room in which to make cheese and contains the apparatus, &c. The cheese room is well ventilated, and the tables so arranged that a stove can be placed in the center, which is used in the spring and fall, and also in the summer in damp weather; I find it a great convenience to keep off the mold and assist in curdling the cheese, &c.

The table on which the cheese from the press is turned, is upon rollers, and admits of being easily moved to thie cheese room, and being of the same height of the cheese tables, the cheese is easily turned on to them; and they save any heavy listing of cheese; the curd sink is also on rollers, and admits of being moved in any part of the room where the cheese is made, and when the cheese is ready for press, it is moved up to the press, and the curd is then dipped into the hoop. It serves also as a conductor for the whey, from the cheese vat to the whey tunel, as shown in the plan, But the manner of cooling and heating the milk, is one of the best arrangements : the milk is placed in a tin rat, around which is a wooden one, with a space of one inch, into which cold water is running all night from the fountain, and pressing out at the opposite end and down through the floor into a drain ; in the morning this pipe is removed, and the steam pipe is arranged and the steam let into the water, which is between the tin and wooden vat, until the milk is warmed to the required heat, which is shown by a thermometer; the steam is turned through the pipe into the cold water, which is soon heated to a scalding heat by the waste steam; and whenever there is tcore stcam than is wanted, there is a waste pipe which will conduct it into the chimney; the steam is changed from the milk to the water by means of two stop cocks, placed near the head or cover of the kettle. And one very important arrangement with this is, that in heating the whey and curd, it is. all done evenly and to any required point; and no dipping of hot

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