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to be more than one species, yet that most common is similar in growth to the large brown willow in the East, found in like situations. On the Sacramento, Feather and Yuba rivers, the banks are often lined with them, growing thick and slender. They are of little value, like nearly all the species of willow.
Oregon Pine.—The growth of this tree, which is abundant on the Columbia river and its tributaries, is unlike that of some of the eastern pines. It resembles the spruce, while the timber is nearly like that of the yellow pine. The height to which the Oregon pine attains, is wonderful. It being, not unfrequently 300 feet, as many assert. The trees' grow remarkably slender and straight. A liberty pole erected on the Plaza in San Francisco, July 4, 1850, brought from the Columbia river, is thirteen inches in diameter at the butt, and 110 feet long-the top being cut off where it is four inches thick. It is almost perfectly straight and clear of knots. The timber of this pine is very valuable for building, is used here, to a great extent for piles, in building over the water.
California Raspberries. The specimen herewith sent was procured from Humbolt Bay, about 200 miles up the coast, north of San Francisco. It will be perceived that the fruit resembles the common Antwerp of our gardens, and the color of the berries is yellow and red, corresponding to the colors of the garden fruit. There is little difference between these and the garden berries, except in size, and in this there is quite a contrast. The bush, or tree as it might be called, is also remarkable. It is not uncommon to see it three or four inches in diameter, and growing 10 or 15 feet high—and this leads to the inevitable conclusion, that it must be of perennial growth. This fruit is abundant on the northern coast, and much of the inland upper country.
California Oats.—This grain differs from the American and English oats, as will appear by the specimen sent. It grows spontaneously in many parts of California, though it is by no means universally disseminated. Upon the Contra Costa, bordering the
bay of San Francisco on the east, on much of the plains upon the sea coast far south, and in the valleys and extensive prairies lying upon the north of the bay, these oats abound. They grow more or less luxuriant, according to the richness of the soil, but generally very thick, covering the ground to the exclusion of almost all other vegetation. In passing up the bay and rivers, 10 or 50 miles in extent may be seen entirely covered with them-one vast and unbroken field of oats. And from Vallejo (Vallay-ho) where the capital of the State has been recently located, at the northern head of the bay, for a distance of perhaps 20 miles towards Sacramento, not a green thing, (not the smallest tree or bush) can be seen, except this rich and beautiful clothing of the hills and valleys, as far inland as the eye can discern. These oats in favorable situations, sometimes grow six or seven feet high. They afford immense quantities of feed for thousands of cattle and horses, that may at all times be seen on some parts of these fields, and a plentiful supply for wild game, such as Elk, Deer, Antelope, Hares, &c. that abound on the plains.
American Oats.—When these are cultivated in this country, they grow most luxuriantly, as a small specimen herewith sent shows. The two plants are not selected as singular and unusual productions. Large fields were this year harvested of the same character, and I have seen immense quantities of them, of which this is only a fair specimen. They thrash no oats in this country yet, but cut them before they are fully ripe, and press them into bales like hay, and sell them, as they do immense quantities of native oats, by the ton. It should be observed, that native oats grow much heavier, in general, when the ground is cultivated. American oats will grow from five to seven feet high-properly cultivated; whether they would fill well, I am not aware, though some of them seem to be tolerably heavy.
Note.-In the package sent, will be found a small branch of the white oak, with a ball attached, and also a stem from the Sycamore with the seed balls. These oak balls, being abundant on many of the trees. give them a very beautiful appearance, resembling oranges, or lemons, and about the same size. This branch of oak was cut from a fine tree in Sncramento city. The identical tree on which was hung, one night last spring, by the mob, a man who committed murder in the street. I took it from that tree because it was most convenient. It is a tine old tree, about three feet in diameter, standing, I think, in Seventh, between K. and L. streets. Note.-Specimens of the timber and oats are deposited in the museum of the Societv. July, 1851.
H. G. WARNER.
AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS OF NEW-YORK,
(From 7th United States Census,) By John DELAFIELD, OAKLANDS, SENECA COUNTY. B. P. Johnson, Esq., Secretary, &c.
Dear Sir—The seventh census of the United States, (1850,) does not give to the Agriculturist data for computing the ratio of increase or decrease of cultivated crops per acre. This defect is felt injuriously by observing and cautious farmers; they examine this public document with interest, as exhibiting the fluctuations of products in the aggregate and in detail; and in connection with the State census, enabling them to form better estimates of the supply and probable demand of objects demanding their care and labor.
It is one among many of the indications of the condition of our farmers, that documents of this character are sought and examined. In your official station you have doubtless witnessed this truth, and it is gratifying to observe in most counties of the State, the desire to possess every authorized publication purporting to give facts, or any matter leading to information and knowledge.
The Agricultural statistics of this State, procured with your accustomed care from the Department at Washington is before me, for which I thank you, and now offer a digest in a form which may be useful to the State Society and to our farming interests.
When examining this document, the first desire of the farmer is to ascertain the condition of his own county, and the adjoining counties; with a view, therefore, to exhibit the condition of each county of the State in a condensed form, the tables have been reconstructed, or so modified as to show the products of a county in one column. Guide numbers are affixed to the items and to the names of counties for greater facility of reference.
A table is also prepared showing the increase or decrease of the products of the State, since the year 1815. This table, in connection with the able paper of Mr. Randal, at page 380 of the Society's Transactions for 1815, gives a comparative view of State agricultural products, for a period of ten years.
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONS Of each county of the State of New-York, compiled from the seventh census of the United States, 1850.
1 Improved acres,
228,505 191, 969 158,392 206,850
7,387 12,503 10,281
19,905 34,083 37,558 103,219 30,650 71,638 122, 446 137,453
25,285 11,453 8,393 12,585 28,769 17,663 1,171,553 1,294,858 852,565 1,339,081 1,861,844 2,114, 932
18,471 183,631 60,201 104,715 468,730 185,734 251, 252 3,100
12,246 303,953 24, 207
201 99,295 270,212 77,296 176,796 367,085 369,997