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animals that has ever been exhibited in the county, since the first organization of the county society. Some of the best specimens of cattle and horses that were ever exhibited. The amount of premiums awarded to the citizens of the county, was three hundred and thirty-six dollars, besides a goodly number of State Reports. The first day of the fair was devoted to the election of officers for the ensuing year, and transacting such other business as came be.fore the society. The officers elected for 1852, were Jonathan S. Pattison, of Hanover, as President, and Daniel Sherman, Secretary. Our county is improving in raising stock of all descriptions, and the greater part of our farmers are engaged in dairying.
Situation, condition, and products of the county. Chautauque is a large county, and somewhat rolling, and something new compared with the eastern counties. The whole number of acres in the county is 564,230. The number of acres improved, or so called here, is 311,344, and the number unimproved is 252,886 acres. The whole county is very well watered, and generally of a pure kind. Partly passing through clay soil and black muck, the most of our county is well adapted to grazing, for which the greatest proportion of our products are butter and cheese, and raising stock. There are raised in the county, the common native breed of cattle, most of the improved breeds-Durhams, &c. There are raised a goodly number of sheep, and some of the best breeds--some imported French merinoes, and there are some good horses raised in the county-some native breeds, and some from imported horses. Our soil is not so well adapted to grain as many other counties in the State, or so much to wheat as it is to corn and oats. The land is timbered with all kinds of timber that grows in any country-white pine, all kinds of oak, beech, maple, hemlock, white wood, and hickory. The land ranges from $10 to $50 per acre, by the farm, and lands have risen fifty per cent. in the last five years, and are still raising yearly for farming purposes. There are no minerals discovered as yet of any amount in the county. Some sulphur gas in several parts of the
county used for lights—lighting light-houses and other public buildings. The census of 1850 gives a full account of our products of all kinds.
CHEMUNG. REPORT. A. J. WYNKOOP, Secretary. The Agricultural Society first organized in this county not having held a Fair since the fall of 1819, and this society having abandoned its organization, it was deemed expedient to call a public meeting, which was held on the 12th of April last, and the present Chemung County Agricultural Society organized by the adoption of a constitution and by-laws, and the election of S. L. Rood, President; E. C. Frost, Corresponding Secretary; Charles Hulett, Treasurer, and A. J. Wynkoop, Recording Secretary.
On the 8th and 9th of October last, a Fair was held at Horseheads, which was well attended, and the exhibition far more cre ditable to the county than was anticipated, and the spirit mani. fested promises future success.
Cash premiums were awarded, amounting to ........ $109 00
Several volumes of the Transactions of the State Sociery and the American Institute, were paid as premiums. The Society was ably addressed by Charles Lee, Esq., of Yates county. The following officers were chosen for the ensuing year commencing with the first of January, 1852 :
S. L. Rood, President, Moreland P. O., Dix; eight Vice-Presidents; E. C. Frost, Catharine, Corresponding Secretary; Charles Hulett, Horseheads, Treasurer; A.J.Wynkoop, Chemung, Recording Secretary. An executive committee of ten, and a standing committee of twenty, were also chosen, and a committee of two appointed to visit the Yates County Fair as delegates from this society.
Chemung county is rapidly increasing in population and wealth, the railroad facilities for marketing all kinds of produce, have given a new impetus not only to the agricultural, but to the entire industrial interests of this county, and nothing is now needed to place the farming interests upon a par with the other portions of our State, but the more general dissemination of scientific agricultural knowledge. This knowledge, so essential to the entire farming community, can be no where so well and thoroughly learned, as at Agricultural schools. It is a favorite theory of mine, that it is not only better, but far cheaper, to properly educate the child, than to apprehend, try, convict, and support in prison, the criminal. If this theory be true, then every principle of charity and true philanthropy calls loudly upon the great State of New-York to exert her power, resources and influence, in providing the means of so educating every child, that they probably will become useful and virtuous citizens; and where could the poor be so cheaply and effectually educated, both intellectually and physically, and so thoroughly trained in habits of industry that would insure independence, as upon a farm connected with an Agricultural College? And it is to be hoped that no proper effort will be omitted to induce the Legislature, at its present session, to enact the necessary laws to carry out the recommendations of the committee appointed by Gov. Fish.
A school thus organized, would afford opportunities for educating teachers to take charge of town and county agricultural schools, and thus, in a few years, these advantages might be extended to the entire State, and perhaps to other States and countries. It is not sufficient that the sons of farmers should be taught to read and write in order that they may become useful and respectable, but they should receive such an education as would qualify them to prosecute the business of farming successfully; and every child should form habits of industry, and be systematically trained to some useful business that would secure to them when they arrive at years of maturity the means of obtaining an honest support.
By a judicious course of legislation it seems to me that thousands who now are growing up in ignorance and vice, might, without greatly increasing the burthens of taxation, be so trained in agricultural schools as to become useful and respectable citizens. The money that is now expended to apprehend, try, convict and support criminals in this state, would go very far towards defraying the expenses of educating the destitute, and thus change their destiny from pauperism and crime to respectability and future usefulness.
The graduates of such a school as is contemplated would be taught scientifically, practically and thoroughly, all that pertains to agriculture, so that when they leave this school they would be prepared to begin the business of farming when the old man of three score and ten leaves it. What an immense advantage this would give the young farmer, to have all the practical knowledge which the aged have heretofore acquired by a long life of toil, and attained at an immense sacrifice of not only time and labor but money.
This college and farm, as suggested by the committee should be located in a central part of the State, and upon the line of a railroad, where it would be easy of access both to pupils and visitors, for the design of the institution should be to give instruction to not only pupils but every farmer who will visit it. This may be done by making the buidings and every thing per taining to the farm, models of imitation, hence great care and sound judgment should be exercised in the selection and improvement of the farm, the location and construction of buildings, fences, drains, tillage, &c., &c., all of which should be done with reference to convenience and durability, and as little for show as correct taste will permit. Here every farmer of our State would feel at liberty to visit, and doubtless would receive many valuable hints; and if a diary was open for the remarks of all, undoubtedly many valuable suggestions would be left in exchange for the information received. This institution might also be made a depository, where not only every improved farming implement could be
seen and tested, but the best varieties of grain and other seeds procured and exchanged, with all the information necessary for the cultivation of each ; thus this institution would greatly benefit the aged as well as the young. The farm should be cultivated so as to yield the largest profit on the investment; and the labor required, performed as far as practicable by the students under the immediate direction of the several professors, so that every principle contained in the lesson could be clearly and practically illustrated and understood, for theoretical knowledge without practice is of little use to the farmer.
For the purpose of securing health and strength of constitution, and correcting the false notion too common among students, and the young generally, that it is dishonorable to labor ; every pupil, the rich as well as poor, should be required to labor a portion of each day, either upon the farm or in the work shops; and to correct another error into which the youth is likely to fall, viz; that a fine coat has much more to do with character and respectability than a highly cultivated mind, or hands trained to do what is essential to secure our future prosperity, a uniform should be established of cheap and durable material and suited to the business of farming; in addition to the above suggestion, permit me to say by way of closing this already too lengthy communication, that the most perfect system should be adopted; every tool should have a place, and be kept in its place; and all this should be regulated either by legislative enactment, or rules established by a board of trustees or managers, and each student should be thoroughly drilled so as to acquire system in all that he does; perhaps there is no one thing which ensures to the young greater success than this systematic training.
CHENANGO. REPORT. J. W. COLLINS, PRESIDENT. The Annual Fair of the Chenango county Agricultural Society was held at Norwich, on the first and second days of October, and the exhibition of stock on the first day was in many respects very: fine, though we are far behind some of our neighboring counties