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CORTLAND. REPORT. Noah HitchcOCK, JR., PRESIDENT. The Cortland County Agricultural Society held their Annual Fair and cattle show at Homer, on the first and second days of October. This, its thirteenth exhibition, was distinguished by the unusually large numbers in attendance, both of spectators and exhibitors. The exhibition of all kinds of stock, and the entries made for premiums, exceeded those of any previous year. The neat stock on the ground was numerous beyond expectation, and in quality such as to afford gratifying evidence that our farmers are beginning to appreciate the importance of in proving their breeds. The display of milch cows was highly gratifying, and, indeed, every class in the society's premiuin list was creditably filled. In horses, sheep and swine, there was an equal improvement upon any former exhibition. But the dairy, which, for some years past has become the staple of Cortland county, made an attractive feature in this show; no less than sixteen premiums were offered on butter and cheese, and the competition in this department was full. The exhibition of agricultural implements and mechanical products, would have done credit to a larger county than Cortland. There were lengthy catalogues of articles of the best construction and latest improvement for the use of the farmer, the mechanic and the house-keeper.
Floral Hall, which includes the department of domestic manufacture, horticulture, &c., was also well filled, and we found that churns an. cheese-presses have not yet driven all the looms from the houses of our farmers, nor deprived their wives and daughters of a good deal of time that must have been devoted to the production of a variety of articles of taste and luxury.
The plowing match came off on the forenoon of the second day. The excellent condition of the ground, and the spirited competition for the nine premiums offered, sustained the interest of a large concourse till the last furrow was turned.
After the annual dinner, the society listened to an excellent address of E. Marks, Esq., of Onondaga county. His remarks were such as a practical farmer, desirous of the improvement and elevation of the great producing class, would address to his fellow agriculturists. At the conclusion of the address, the reports of the various committees were read, and premiums awarded to nearly $250, besides 62 volumes Transactions, 67 Agricultural papers, and 15 diplomas.
The first premium on Winter Wheat was awarded to Hammel Thompson, 35} bushels to the acre, of the Soules' variety. Second premium to the same, 31; bushels of the Mediterranean. Third premium to Anson Fairchild, 25, bushels per acre, Blue stem variety. Spring Wheat, first premium to Moses Kinney, 23; bushels Black sea variety: Burley, first premium to Anson Fairchild, 40 bushels per acre. Second premium to S. Patrick, 39 40 bushels. Beets, H. Fairbanks, 78 bushels on one eighth of an acre.
Carrots, first premium to M. Kinney, 800 bushels per acre.
Fat hogs, 1st premium, Jacob M. Schermerhorn. No more entered; the following is his statement :
1850. Dec. 26th. Jacob M. Schermerhorn purchased two pigs, age
four and a half months, weighing 162 lbs., cost 5 cents per lb.,
amounting to ... Amount of feed consumed by them, viz: 6 bushels corn
in the ear, fed out to them from Dec. 29, 1850, until new corn was fit for use at 2s.....
1 50 Three bushels soft corn, fed early in the fall at 1s.,..... 38 Thirteen bushels shelled corn ground and mostly scalded, 4s. per bushel, .
6 50 Slops (inilk) from 2 cows, 16s., .
Proceeds from above hogs when slaughtered on 2d of December, 1851 :
46 80 Weight of hogs dressed 852 lbs., sold at 5C, ....... Rough lard not included above, 313 lbs. at 7c.,
There is manifestly an increased interest taken in the occupation of the farmer in this county, and the beneficial effects of this society with its annual fairs, are distinctly apparent.
The financial condition of the society will appear from the following abstract from the books of the treasurer: To balance on hand from last year, .
$134 52 Received from annual members,
130 00 admissions to Floral Hall,..
105 72 1 volume Transactions sold,
1 00 Treasurer State of New York,
Officers for 1852: Anthony Freer, of Cortlandville, President ; Amos Rice, do., Corresponding Secretary; L. S. Pomeroy, do., Recording Secretary; Morgan L. Webb, do., Treusurer; four Vice-Presidents and an Executive committee of eleven.
Report of N. Hitchcock, Jr., in answer to the circular of the President of the State Society.
Much do I regret that it is not in my power, fully and definitely, to render you all the desired information. I have visited the clerk's office, for the purpose of collecting statistics in regard to the number of acres cultivated for particular crops, and the amount of product; but there I found, that in long columns, all was unadded and unarranged; and you can readily perceive, that for me to come to any definite conclusion would be a task of no small difficulty. But those facts, in regard to the interest and prosperity of agriculture in our county, which may be derived from personal observation, I feel a pleasure in communicating; and will state in general terms, the principal sources of wealth for our county. And, 1st. I can with confidence say, that the principal product of our country is that of the dairy. The soil is well adapted to the growth of grass, and especially to that of a grazing quality; and I can unhesitatingly give it as my opinion, that there is scarcely another county in the State which, in proportion to its size, annually sends so large a quantity of butter and cheese to market as this. For the past few years the amount of butter and cheese produced in this county has been rapidly increasing, and usually in market, Cortland county dairy products stand high.
The cultivation of Indian corn, oats, and barley, receives considerable attention; the soil is generally adapted to their growth, and they flourish well. This cannot be called a wheat growing country; some, however, is raised, but not as much as is consumed.
The number of acres under tillage, I should think, remained about the same; while some lands are cleared and tilled, others are seeded and used for pasture lands.
The amount of animal stock is increasing. A great many cattle are here raised, and a great amount of pork prepared for market. But the dairyman counsels his own interests in regard to the breed, choosing those which possess the best qualities for dairy cows; paying less attention to their beauty of form, or aptness to fat than to the amount of butter or cheese which they will produce. Some fine animals, however, are reared, and a general improvement of breed is visible.
7. “In regard to scientific attention to agriculture."
It is deeply to be regretted, that there is in our county so little attention paid to a subject of such vast importance; while many of our farmers are plodding their way on in the same old path that their fathers have trod, but a very few branch out, and in their most noble, if properly conducted vocation, call to their aid the strong arm of science. It might almost be said that there is an absence of scientific attention to agriculture; but thus I hope it will not always be. With you I would exert my feeble influence, and strive to raise to its proper level the subject of agriculture. The value of farms is increasing, and should the now contemplated and surveyed railroad, through the heart of our county, be completed, the value of farms would be greatly increased.
I have now replied to your divisions as well as I am able; and regret that it is not in my power more clearly and definitely to delineate the agricultural interests of our county; but before I close I wish to express it as my sincere desire and that of many others in this county, that an Agricultural College which shall have as a prominent character the application of science to agriculture, may be speedily established. What would more promote the interests of agriculture ? Several talented young men of my acquaintance would gladly avail themselves of the advantages to be derived from such a school; they would much rather become scientific farmers than follow a profession, if equal advantages were offered for the attainment of their ends.
DELAWARE. The Annual Fair held in this county on the 8th and 9th of October, exceeded by far any heretofore held by the society.
We will only say that the display of stock showed a decided improvement over previous years. There was also a fine show of vegetables, grain, butter, cheese, sugar, fruit, &c., &c. The ladies were creditably represented in their department. The portion of the grounds set apart for their handiwork presented a fine display