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of quilts, counterpanes, embroidery, paintings, artificial flowers, &c., &c. Our mechanics, too, were on hand with some beautiful specimens of household furniture, agricnltural implements, boots, artificial teeth, &c. Mr. Law, the president of the society, showed a handsome specimen of salt manufactured at the salt spring in this town—now owned by Hon. H. D. Gould.
The plowing match, a new feature at our county fair, took place on Wednesday. There were several entries. The first premium was awarded to James Irwin, of Delhi.
The address, by Hon. Horace Greeley of New York, was delivered at noon of the second day. We have heard but one opinion expressed as to the address—that of general approval.
DUTCHESS. In reporting the proceedings of the Dutchess county Agricultural Society, it is a source of the highest satisfaction to be enabled to say that the results of our Annual Fair and cattle show fully realized the anticipations of the most sanguine amateurs in the science of agriculture.
The diversified character of the soil and natural adaptations of the different sections of our county to almost every variety of agricultural pursuit, renders it in many respects peculiarly favorable towards enabling the associated farmers to make a fine display at their annual festival. Although the county has long enjoyed a high reputation for the thrift, enterprise, and success of its farming interests, yet in viewing its entire natural advantages for the attainment of such results, we think that there are but few of her sister counties which are not capable of showing a more even surface, and a far more easily tilled soil.
The range of Fishkill mountains, traversing the southern and eastern sections of the county, send out branches in such a man
ner that the whole surface, from the Hudson river to the Connecticut line, is divided into valleys and ridges differing very materially from each other in their natural formations, and, of a consequence, equally diversified in their capacity for agricultural productions. On the east, we find the white limestone and marble prevailing through almost the entire length of the valley traversed by the Harlem railroad, in close connexion with the gravelly, and in some places, alluvial bottoms adjoining the Croton and Ten-mile creeks. The high range of hills dividing the waters which flow into the Housatonic from those which, taking a westerly direction, find the tide water in the Hudson, are much broken by rocky ledges, covered in many places by a fine growth ofotimber, principally of the varieties of the oak, chestnut, maple, ash, hickory, birch, &c., which have furnished the charcoal for the iron furnaces, which are also principally supplied with ore from the same range of hills, upon which are also located some of the finest grazing and meadow lands in the county, or perhaps in the State. Adjoining these hills on the west and contiguous to the Fishkill and Wappenger's creeks and their tributaries, we find an equally varying character of surface and soil ; now loam, now slaty ledges, now alluvial and gravelly bottoms, and occasionally limestone districts, together with some sections in which clay can be considered the predominant characteristic of the soil. Hence it is almost impossible to say whether the county is better adapted to grain-growing than to grazing, as there are hardly five consecutive miles in the county which do not contain some of the best and some of the poorest lands adapted to either of those pursuits; and generally, the exhibition of agricultural products at our county fairs would seem to correspond with this universal character of the soil from which they are produced.
The Annual Fair and cattle show was held this year at Washington Hollow, on the 1st and 2d days of October, and was fully equal to any which the society has ever before given, in respect to the quality of the farm produce or stock, although we have reason to believe there would have been a more extensive collection, and
a much better exhibition of both, had not the excessive drought which prevailed during the entire summer, frustrated in a great measure the designs of our most enterprising friends.
It will be observed by the few premiums awarded on crops, and the comparatively small merit of those to which premiums were awarded, that in this respect we are considerably behind the productions of former years. But I am happy to be able to say that the spirit of enterprise has by no means abated, but on the contrary we are encouraged to undertake the erection of permanent structures for the accommodation of future exhibitions. The society have seriously, felt the necessity of suitable accommodations for their annual fairs, and could see no way of obviating the difficulty except by locating them permanently or at least for a term of years at one place, and erecting buildings of their own, which has been proposed to be accomplished by voluntary subscription. And they determined upon their location at Washington Hollow, as being the most central portion of the agricultural district of the county.
The exhibition of cattle and horses this year evinced a steady and judicious improvement in those departments, and the exhibition of sheep, I feel warranted in saying, was never equalled in the county. The other departments were mueh the same as in former years, excepting poultry, which was vastly improved, and swine which was considerably inferior to that of last year.
There were over $350 awarded in cash premiums, and about one hundred and fifty volumes of agricultural and other books. The annual address was delivered by Dr. Underhill of Westchester county, on the subject of subsoiling and the tendency of manures to ascend and evaporate, in contradiction to the more commonly received opinion that they descended into the soil. It was one of those eminently practical addresses, such as farmers love to hear, and was received with decided approbation by an attentive audience. The number of members for 1851 was 243.
At the December meeting premiums were awarded, To Mr. William Herrick for the best 5 acres of corn, 320 bush. 27 qts.
do do for the best 5 acres of oats, 361 8 Mr. G H. Knapp, best 1 acre of wheat,..... 22
Officers for 1852.-Elnathan Haxtun, of Beekman, President; A. B. Knapp, E. L. Barlow, Aaron Vail, William Kelly, E. Thorn, and B. F. Arnold, Vice Presidents ; Barclay Haviland, Treasurer ; Samuel T. Tabor, Secretary.
ERIE. REPORT. W. R. COPPOCK, V. PRES’T. Our county fair, came off at Lancaster 10th and 11th of September. We had promised ourselves much in the way of a large as well as fine display of agricultural stock, but from accidental circumstances, such as too early in the season, the great heat for several days previous, and an unlucky selection of exposed grounds, the exhibition was not a large one. Very many attended personally who had desired and matured arrangements for their stock, &c. What there was, however, was good. As exhibitors under such circumstances are of the active and right kind, their commodities are likely to be good also. There was a good display of horses and working cattle, some fine sheep, and an excellent display of domestic wares. Butter and cheese, for the very center of excellence, was meagre. Of agricultural inplements, there has, (excepting the State show,) never been so fine a display. The Messrs. Mason and Lovering of our city, having recently established one of the largest and most extensive establishments in the State, made a grand display. This establishnient is an honor to our city, and will work great good to our farming interest, by furnishing the tools needful, which alone can do good work.
We feel sanguine that our county society, which has more or less, received an impetus from our Horticultural society, is on the road to improvement, and that ere long we may vie with the many others of our State who already are reaping the reward of
spirited and intelligent labors of agriculture. Fruit culture is receiving increased attention throughout the country, and no section of our State is better adapted to the successful growth of fruits generally, than Erie.
REPORT. WINsLow C. Watson, PRESIDENT. Since the last annual report of this society its connection with the Clinton County Society has been dissolved. This measure although adverse to the opinion of many of the most zealous friends of the society, was demanded by the wishes and interests of the southern and central sections of the county. The first independent fair of Essex county, was held at Elizabethtown, the shiretown of the county, on the 17th and 18th of September. The lib. erality and public spirit of the citizens of that vicinity, prepared gratuitously and with no expense or liability to the society, ample grounds, well enclosed and embracing every required erection and convenience. As it has been remarked in previous reports, the peculiar topography of Essex county, and its vast territorial extent, render it almost impracticable to concentrate at any point, a just or adequate exhibition of animals or products from all parts of the county. The position of Elizabethtown is central, and the fair was more immediately sustained by that portion of the county, and yet we were happy to observe that the presence and the competition from the remote towns were much more general than upon any previous occasion. Almost every section of the county was represented, not only by interested and approving spectators, but by exhibitors and competitors. We are confident that the causes which have limited the influences of the society to local rather than general efforts will be rapidly surmounted, and that all parts of the county will gradually participate in its efforts and enjoy its benefits. We indulge the grateful assurance, that it has already become the institution of the county, and that its prosperity and growth are cherished by the warmest feelings of our citizens. The fair was attended by an immense concourse of spectators, embra