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was taken immediately to the cellar and all strained together in a large tub, and while yet warm was dipped out into eight quart pans. A greater quantity of cream is obtained from the same quantity of milk when the pans are partly filled. For that reason the pans are only partly filled, viz., from one half to two thirds full. The cream was skimmed off as soon as the milk became thick, put in a stone crock, and permitted to stand until the next morning, when it was churned by a dog power. By letting the cream stand until the day after it is collected the butter made is much harder and more firm. The churning was commenced in the morning and usually took about two hours; when nearly done about two quarts of water were put in the churn. As soon as churned the butter was taken out, placed in a wooden butter bowl and immediately worked with a ladle and washed with cold water until the buttermilk was all washed out and the water came off clear. It was then salted with one pint of pure Liverpool sack salt to twenty pounds of butter, and thoroughly worked with a ladle until the salt was uniformly incorporated with the butter. It stood in the bowl until the evening, was then worked a little, then stood until the next morning, when it was again worked with a ladle until all the pickle came out, and was then packed in tub. The tub thoroughly washed and scalded before packing—no water used after the first washing and no substance other than salt.
Officers, 1852.- James Edwards, Ephratah, President; E. W. Prindle, Johnstown, Vice-President; B. H. Dewey, Johnstown, Secretary ; Archibald Anderson, Johnstown, Treasurer.
GENESEE. REPORT OF J. E. TOMPKINS, PRESIDENT, In answer to circular of President of State Agricultural Society.
I am happy to respond to your note, but it is to me matter of regret, that the necessary sources of information from which to obtain satisfactory answers to your interrogations, on the interesting subjects to which you have directed my attention, are not within my reach. Indeed, such sources of information do not at
present exist, and I cannot readily see how this subject can be reached, and such a desirable end attained, except by an annual report obtained from each farmer of the county, through the medium of the assessors; of the number of acres he has under cultivation, the quantity of land appropriated to each crop, and the result in each case, annually specified. Such a system, each year faithfully carried out, would furnish the necessary statistics, from which to determine the yearly and relative productions of each county with itself, and in the aggregate, would show a comparison between all the counties of the State; and thereby lay open to the observation of all who feel an interest in this subject, a fund of information, as interesting as it would be useful. These suggestions are made in hopes the subject may be deemed of sufficient importance to be laid before the Legislature the present season, in such a manner as to result in the passage of a law, that will secure annually, the report above named.
It is with diffidence I offer to you the result of my investigations which, for want of better helps, will I have no doubt, be as unsatisfactory to you as it is to myself.
1st. Wheat is the staple of our county.
2nd. This crop for the present year as a whole, is imperfect in quality and deficient in quantity. It does not produce by measure as many bushels from a given number of sheaves, and it falls short proportionably in weight, making a deficiency of one fourth the usual crop. This is, I think, to be attributed in part to the season, and partially to that exhaustion of soil, the unavoidable result of our mode of cropping.
3rd. “The condition generally of other important products.” Corn has not been a remunerating crop this season. The highest estimate we feel authorised to make, is two thirds of a crop. Oats, barley and grass, were never more abundant. The potato, from fields long under cultivation, is in most cases badly diseased. On new land, recently cleared, this crop has in a plurality of cases, been as perfect this, as in any former year.
4th. There is each year, a few hundred acres added to those already under tillage.
5th. The stock of the county has been greatly improved within the last few years. The breed of horses has been entirely changed. The improvement in black cattle is progressing, the proof of which was abundantly evinced by the fine specimens of Dwhams, Devons and grades, on exhibition at our late county fair.
6. There is an increased attention to scientific farming. Agricultural associations are formed in many of the villages in our county, the object of which is to meet at short intervals, and discuss subjects pertaining to agriculture and its correlatives. This disposition to investigate, and anxiety to test and adopt the improvements of the age, show conclusively that a new spirit has come over the mind of the community, and cannot fail to augment the wealth of the agriculturist, and raise the farmer in the scale of beings, and it is but honest to say, I consider these improvements as fairly traceable to the action of your State Agricultural Society, and smaller associations that follow in your train. And this revolution in the sentiments of the yeomanry of our country, are among the happy results of the many valuable periodicals that are put forth to aid, enlighten, and encourage the farmer, and foster the inventive genius of the mechanic.
7. Farms have increased 50 per cent. in value, within the last six years. A slight depression is felt at present in consequence of the pressure in the money market.
The same spirit and intelligence that have wrought the change in the stock of cattle and horses, is equally manifest in the improvement of sheep, swine, and domestic fowls of every description. Desirous of making this report approximate as near as possible to the exact condition and result of the various crops of the county, for the past season, I have obtained all the information that could be given by the supervisors of the various towns in the county, and by those men who traverse the county with machines to thrash the wheat. This, added to the investigations I have been able to make personally, and the intelligence obtained from other reliable sources, constitute the best report I am able to send you.
GREENE. The Annual Meeting of the Greene county Agricultural Society, was held at the Hotel of C. L. Kiersted, in Cairo, on the 6th day of January, 1852: present George Robertson, President, in the chair ; H. L. Day, Secretary.
The following named persons were duly elected officers for 1852.
President, Edward Johnson, of Durham ; Vice Presidents, Geo. Robertson, of Windham, George Budd, Greenville, John Laraway, Prattsville, Joseph C. Tiffany, New-Baltimore, Cyrus Field, Durham; Recording Secretary, Horatio L. Day, of Cairo; Corresponding Secretary, E. B. Fenn, Prattsville; Treasurer, Stephen Hotchkiss, Cairo. ' Executive Committee, Albert Tuttle, Ashland, Alonzo Greene, Athens, Stewart Austin, Coxsackie, c. L. Kiersted, Cairo, Peter Dubois, Catskill, E. P. Smith, Durham, H. T. Miller, Greenville, Cornelius Hogeboom, Lexington, George Beach, Jewett, Stephen Steele, Windham, Marcus Beach, Hunter, Hezekiah Smith, Prattsville, and John F. Gritman, New-Baltimore.
The committee on resolutions presented the following, which were unanimously adopted :
Resolved, That the thanks of the Greene County Agricultural Society are hereby tendered to George Robertson, for the able and liberal manner in which he has discharged his duty as President of said Society. Also,
Resolved, That we present our thanks to the remaining officers, for the able and zealous manner in which they have discharged their duties in their respective offices.
The report of the Treasurer of the Society was made, showing a balance of $118 in his hands, belonging to the Society.
We have not been furnished with any detailed statement of the proceedings of the Society.
REPORT OF E. GRAVES, PRESIDENT. The resources of this county, with its advantageous location to market, its salubrious and unequalled healthy climate, furnish advantages for more than ordinary progress in the science of agriculture. The developements which are being made in the farmer's pursuits have, in the minds of men who reason and deliberate, removed the false impression which has too long prevailed, that farming was almost a matter of chance, and that science had nothing to do in beautifying her fields and enriching her soil. With the great variety of soil which the farmers of Herkimer county enjoy, her products can always be made equal to any demands which her citizens may make upon her for sustenance and support. And while the soil contains the necessary qualities for growing grain, it is also well, adapted to pasturage, and no county within the State could boast of better cattle, horses or sheep if the spirit of emulation equalled that of other counties. It is not to be doubted that the desire of the acquirement of agricultural information has increased within the last few years in a manner that is truly commendable, and has furnished proof of its usefulness by the extraordinary quantity and superior qualities of butter and cheese marketed from the county, and also in large exhibitions of fine horses and cattle which have been raised in the county by that class of the farmers whose desires were heretofore satisfied with an ordinary appearing horse or ox, if of sufficient strength and speed to perform the needed labor upon the farm, not taking into the account that the value of the animal remains undiminished by the labor which he is necessarily called upon to perform, or that the expense of raising an inferior cow,ox or horse is equal to that of raising one which will command the highest market price, and that the difference between the value of ordinary and extraordinary stock is a clear loss to him who is satisfied with an inferior article. This examination of the farmer's true interest has made our county fairs much more respectable, and will increase their usefulness as the farmer examines and consults his own judgment and experience in what will pay best with the least labor and