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crops of grass, spring wheat, barley, oats and peas, are unusually large, and notwithstanding the severe inclemency of the season, were mostly secured in good order. Winter wheat, we found more or less injured by the weevil, (midge) and but little preparation making for sowing, this fall, farmers fearing to take much risk in that crop at present. The corn crop must range much below an average yield, through the southern portion of the county, it had attained a fair growth but was very backward, the late warm dry weather will, however, bring it forward rapidly. The potato crop, we were pained to observe, was unusually diseased, and, from present appearances, must prove almost a total failure. This blight or scourge of this most valuable vegetable being entirely beyond comprehension, we shall pass it without further remark. · Fruit looked unusually well, most of the orchards we passed being in bearing condition, many, however showing a great want of care on the part of the owner for the want of pruning, cleaning, mulching, &c.
The committee were also much pained to observe upon the way side and in many fields, so many weeds and thistles, scattering with every breeze these pestilential seeds over the whole land. This, is all wrong, and within means of control. Although it is the duty of our overseers of the highway to see that they are cut twice in each year, and are subject to a penalty for each neglect, still that is almost entirely disregarded. It is quite useless for one farmer to mow and eradicate these weeds from his own farm while his neighbor suffers them to grow up and ripen unmolested. It should therefore be the duty of every man who owns an acre of land, to thoroughly purge these foul destroyers from his own farm, and the work is accomplished. There are many things which came under the observation of the committee of which we should be happy to speak, but time will not permit, and we shall mention but few.
Grazing and the manufacture of the dairy being the most profitable and legitimate business, a few remarks which experience has taught me, first : the cultivation of the grasses is an inter
est which demands our most earnest attention. Great complaint is made amongst most of our farmers of the difficulty in keeping up their meadows, or they run out and want plowing up even in three or four years.
Feeding of Meadow's. It is the opinion of your Committee, and I am most fully convinced, both from experience and observation, that the feeding of our meudou's either full or spring is a great and very general fault. In the whole course of our tour we have seen but few farms upon which the cattle, the horses or the sheep were not permitted to trespass on the meadows, the consequence is, the roots are robbed of their natural covering and protection, and are left exposed to the chilling and destroying frosts of winter. The cultivated and more tender grasses, such as Timothy, and Clover are frozen out and the natural or more hardy June grass takes its place. Besides great injury is done particularly to new seeded fields in treading up, exposing the roots, and forming an uneven surface. The early feeding of our pasture lands is also a fault with too many of our farmers, it not only injures the pastures and keeps them short the whole season, but injures the stock which is permitted to roam over them, usually losing more flesh in the first two weeks that they are turned to pasture, than in the whole previons winter. I am moreover, fully of the opinion, that if we would reduce our meadows from one quarter to one third, and not permit them to be cropped either fall or spring, that we should cut more grass from the two-thirds, than we now do from the whole, under the present ruinous system. That we should not only see two spires of grass where one grows now, but that they would grow more tall and vigorous.
Draining.–Draining is a subject which demands our attention. Much of our richest and most fertile lands are rendered almost useless, in consequence of water standing upon its surface, particularly in wet seasons like the present. On farms where stone is plenty, the best mode is probably in opening a narrow ditch two or three feet deep, place a course of stone on each side some
four inches in diameter, and filling to the depth of one foot with loose stones thrown in promiscuously, a light covering of shavings or straw, and covered again with the earth thrown out. This forms a good and permanent drain, and will carry off all surface water if properly located. On farms where there is no stone, the open ditch is probably the best, until the brick tile which is so much used in England, can be prudently introduced.
Butter Dairies.-First in the manufacture of the dairy, neatness is indispensable to a good, sweet, rich-flavored dairy. Every article of use, from the milk pail to the butter tub or cheese cask, should be kept sweet and clean. If for butter, the room for sitting the milk should be protected from a southern or eastern exposure, either by trees or buildings as much as possible, should have a free circulation of pure air, not striking directly upon the pans, but let in either above or below them. No sink washings, barrels of sour milk, or pig-styes, should be in a position to impregnate the air with its poisonous eflluvia, as it is as sure to affect the flavor of the butter as it is to enter the room into which the milk is set. Next in order is the skimming process, for which care and experience are required.
Goshen Butter-how made.—While in New-York, I have made considerable inquiry of the far-famed Goshen dairymen on this subject, and find them to differ much on this part of the process. Some churning all of the milk as soon as it is cool, others allowing it to remain in pans from twelve to twenty-four hours, and churning a portion of the milk with the cream, while the larger portion permit it to stand, until the milk loppers or becomes sour, as with us. But all agree that it should not stand beyond the point of change from sweet to sour, as the cream becomes bitter and of bad flavor, and a less quantity of butter is obtained. In churning, the all-important point is in having the cream of a proper temperature. Sixty degre s. probably, is as near the point as possible. After it is taken from the churn, the mode of separating the milk from the butter again, differs by different individuals, some using the hand or ladle, while others, and without doubt the better mode is the washing with pure
water; this mode leaves it solid and in good condition for packing, while the former is likely to leave it soft, salry, and in bad condition. In salting both the quality and quantity used, is very important; the kind most in use, and which your committee would unanimously recommend, is the fine Liverpool imported salt. This salt imparts a much sweeter and milder flavor than the salt manufactured from our own works. One ounce of this salt to a pound of butter ready for packing is about the quantity used by the best dairies. Many, however, being governed entirely by the taste, and using all that dissolves and no more.' This is probably the criterion by which we can be governed. Last, but not least, is the manner and style of packing.
Packing, Butter firkins and Welsh Tubs.-Butter, in all our large markets derives its character from the style of its package. The Goshen style is the oak firkin with round hoops, and let it be made either in Orange, Delaware, Chenango, or Chautauque; if good and sweet, is branded Goshen, and sold in our southern or foreign markets for the same. The western or Welch style is the white ash tub, largest at the top, with cover and flat hoop. This style, the quality being equal, will bring as high a price, and is more sought for in the eastern market than the Goshen. It is, therefore, necessary, if you would secure the highest price in the market to carry out one of these styles. The latter style being most in use with us and that kind of package being most easily procured is undoubtedly the best. These packages should be of uniform size, not holding less than fifty llys. each or over one hundred, should be made neat and smooth and kept clean as possible; if a buyer sees a dairy enclosed in reat strong packages, his first impression is that it is a good one, and I have often found it more easy to sell an ordinary dairy in good packages, than a good one in poor packages.
Cheese Dairies-- Process of manufircture.—In the manufacture of cheese, the steam and common process is both used. And your committee are not prepared to give an opinion which is the best mode. The most important points are in keeping the milk sweet,
setting and scalding at the proper temperature, salting correctly and pressing thoroughly. Among the best dairies we examined, the temperature for salting ranged for setting from 85 to 90, scalding from 100 to 110; salting by measurement with a common sized tea cup to 15 lbs. of pressed curd. The temperature for setting and scalding is probably very near right, but the description for salting is quite large as it depends much upon the state of the curd at the time the salt is put in; is the curd is not properly drained and worked down, the salt will drain off in the whey and leave the cheese too fresh which is a serious fault, and which nothing but experience will correct. The mode of working the curd or rather the first breaking up is very important. Some use a seive or tin cutter, while others break it up entirely with the hand. The latter mode is undoubtedly the best. This implement for cutting, leaves the curd smooth or glazed upon the surface and retains the whey within the particles and finally leaves the cheese porous and of a bad flavor, while the process of breaking with the hand leaves the curd in a loose and ragged state which permits the whey to ooze out freely and separate from the curd, and when properly pressed unites firmly and makes a sound, firm, mild flavored cheese, well adapted to the English markets as well as for home consumption. The room for curing should be dry and of even temperature as possible; after the fermentation or curing process commences, it should not be checked by the sudden changes from warm to cold which our climate is so subject to. It is therefore quite necessary that a stove should be kept standing in the room, and a fire kept up at such times as is necessary to keep a temperature of 75 degrees. When packed for market care should be taken to have it dry and smooth, and whether in casks or boxes to fit snugly but not pressed in tightly.
State of the County in 1841.-In 1811, the first year of the reorganization of your Society, I was a member of the Committee which I now have the honor to represent, and took very nearly the same tour which we have the present year. The change, from that time to the present is so very great that you will indulge a passing remark by way of contrast. This change is