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tical advantage to the agriculturist, and having acquired it give it currency, this being one of the chief advantages of our agricultural organizations.
Town Associations.-To this fact those persons who are members of farmers' clubs or town societies will bear witness and endorse the assertion, that the free interchange of ideas in conversational meetings is the means of calling out much interesting and practical information. I do not propose to give an essay on the value of agricultural associations, but cannot refrain from recommending to those towns that have not formed such societies, to try them. It is not convenient for the county society to hold these conversational ineetings, but we can meet once a year, and exhibit the products of the knowledge obtained from them, and the various other sources within our reach, and if towns, as well as individuals, should become a little emulous it may not work us great injury.
The spirit of the age demands progress in Agriculture. The spirit of the
age demands from us activity, and the fact cannot be disguised that
progress has laid her hand on our cause; and those who do not heed her spirit's influence may wake from their Rip Van Winkle slumbers and find themselves dozing over the history of the antiquated “ Bull Plow," or engaged in the project of moving a barn to avoid the accumulating manure, while our more fortunate cotemporaries are regaling themselves over the report of the commissioners of the Industrial Fair held in the city of New York, 1853, or the report of the Agricultural College and Experimental Farm of this State, besides receiving substantial aid” in the improved condition of their finances. Fortunately for our cause the number of the latter is far the most numerous and fast increasing.
Fat Cattle. It is thought that there might be made a change in the time for the exhibition of fat cattle; this is a subject worthy candid consideration, as well as that of changing the place of holding the annual fair and cattle show. Those who have watched the commercial transactions of the country,'may have noticed an increased demand for fresh meats, and that the increased and in
creasing facilities for getting our products to market will probably work a change, requiring foresight on the part of the producer to meet.
Agricultural Survey. If an agricultural survey of the county could be had, as taken by and under the direction of the State Society, much useful information would be obtained, and many important facts embodied in a statistical form, that would be highly valuable to those desiring such information. This subject is earnestly recommended to the consideration of this meeting. I have hinted at but few of the many subjects that may, and ought to engage the attention of this society, but enough to show that a large field for its operation is open before it, in which to make itself useful if rightly directed ; and it remains for us to say whether we will enter this field with a determination to work out the result. The county of Ontario has a soil as fertile and rich in the elements of agricultural productions as any county of Western New-York, and should not be behind any of her sister counties in the display of her products at her fairs and cattle shows; and every farmer should feel bound by every consideration of patriotism, self-respect, duty to posterity, and, above all, an unconquer able determination to elevate the cause of agriculture to that eminence, among the callings of men, that she is destined to reach when her friends have done their duty, and science and knowledge have performed their promised work. This eminence is to be reached by communities, or individuals, only by the thorough application of the means within their reach to procure information, and a persevering industry in its application to practical and profitable determinations.
Improvement of Stock.--— Thorough bred animals.—The meeting then took up the subject of premiums for the ensuing year.
Mr. John S. Bates made some highly interesting remarks upon the importance of improving our farm stock, and of the necessity of introducing some thorough bred animals, and moved that the society award premiums on improved stock. Similar remarks were also made by F. Bradley and others.
Mr. Wm. D. Dickinson, of Victor, spoke with much interest on the subject of improved stock of all kinds; and remarked that his attention had been turned to the growing of wool, and to the improvement of his flock in this particular. Mr. D. stated that his flock last spring yielded an average fleece of 4 lbs. and 10 oz. per head; and had for the past four years given an increase annually of 4 oz. per head.
Mr. Bates remarked, that perfection in all particulars was not to be found in any one breed of animals, and hence the necessity of introducing choice specimens of the different breeds; and moved that a committee of five be appointed to perfect a list of premiums on farm stock.
Report of H. Munson, President, in answer to circular of President of State Society.
Dear Sir-Your letter to the officers of the Ontario Agricultural Society, asking information on certain important subjects relating to the condition of agriculture in this county, was handed me on the8th Nov., but a press of business, and a little time required to look about to see if the means of giving correct information lay within my reach, has prevented an earlier reply. I regret to say our society has not the means of furnishing the desired information. It has long appeared to me that county societies should collect and keep for after reference many such important facts, and hope we may have energy enough to do something of the kind in future. The answers I shall make will therefore be from personal knowledge on the subject, and of course will not be as valuable to you as if taken from some more reliable source, or as the opinion of individnals who have been longer engaged in agricultural pursuits.
1. The chief or staple product of the county is wheat.
2. This year it has been a decreased crop, owing partly to the season-a large growth of straw, but the heads not well filled. Another reason for the decrease is the ravages of the wheat midge,
which has damaged the crop in the eastern and middle parts of the county. The western part has not yet suffered as much by its ravages.
3. I have not the means of knowing the number of acres occupied by the culture of our staple, or the number of bushels per acre, any more correctly than given by the census taken by the State and the United States. My opinion is, the average yield per acre has been on the increase for the last five or ten years. The quality is not probably excelled by any other county.
4. The condition of other important crops is generally good. Indian corn, barley, and oats are cultivated to a fair extent,' and the average yield may be considered on the increase.
5. I have not the means of forming a correct or reliable opinion of the increase or diminution of acres under tillage for all purposes.
6. The number of animal stock may not have increased, but there are more of the improved breeds kept at present than formerly, such as the Short-horn Durham, Merino sheep, and some desire is being felt to obtain the mutton sheep, the New Liecester, and South Down. : 7. I am happy to believe that scientific cultivation of the farm is on the increase. As evidence of this, the number of subscribers to and readers of agricultural publications is on the increase ; in some of our towns farmers' clubs are formed, and town fairs and cattle shows are held, which would seem to indicate that the desire for information and improvement is becoming more general among the farming portion of our county.
8. The value of farms has for the last few years been on the increase.
I have to regret with humility the want of information sufficient to answer the 3d, 5th, and 6th interrogatories, but hope it will be the moving cause of putting our society in the way of obtaining the facts.
REPORT. ASAHEL BYINGTON, 2ND, PRESIDENT. Orleans county is situated between the 43d and 44th parallel of north latitude. It is about twenty-four miles long, from east to west, by eighteen broad, embracing an area of 432 square miles. A very small portion of it can be considered waste land. The favorite and staple crop is wheat, and the amount yearly grown, when taking into view the area of the county, is exceeded by no other county in the State. It is also well adapted to the production of corn, oats and grass, and clover comes in not only as a part of a system of rotative husbandry, but often as an alternating crop with wheat.
The ridg., road passes through the county near its center, from east to west, making a natural division. The portion of it north of the ridge may be termed level, though there is sufficient descent to admit of the egress of surface water, which is principally effected by open drains. The southern portion of the county, though it cannot be denominated hilly, is more uneven; the soil at the margin of the declivities often being springy, and basin shaped depressions of the surface frequently occur, producing an accumulation of surface water unfavorable to any crop, and fatal to a crop of wheat. A judicious system of underdraining will remedy these evils, and what is creditable to the enterprise of our farmers, it is already commenced.
The influence which altitude and contiguity to large bodies of deep water, has upon the climate of a county is favorably felt in this county. Its northern border reaches the shore of lake Ontario. The area of the lake is estimated at 6,300 square miles, its average depth at 500 feet, its level above the ocean at 232 feet, and the elevation of the land above the level of the lake, probably does not, in any place within the county, exceed 300 feet; all of which circumstances combined, give it an equability of climate unknown to other portions of the State not similarly situated, and in regard to its lowest mean temperature, it would compare favo