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latent in 'every American bosom will be called forth, for no farmer will admit he cannot do what his neighbor has accomplished before him.

The accounts of the society stand as follows
Amount received from the State,....

for membership, &c.,....
from sale of tickets at fair,

$38 00 283 00 108 56

$429 56

Amount expended at fair,....

for printing, of incidental expenses, expended in premiums,

$28 08 15 00 14 38 98 50

$155 96

Balance in treasury,..

$273 60

QUEENS. REPORT. JOHN HAROLD, CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. The general interests of the Society have been progressive during the last three years, as the number of members and increased funds testify. It is highly creditable to the county to witness the zeal manifested by our farmers to become acquainted with the best means of improving their agricultural operations. A spirit of inquiry exists as to the best implements, the best stock, the best seeds, and the most approved modes of cultivation. Old prejudices are fast wearing away, works on agriculture are inquired for, science and practice have combined to convince our citizens that there is something to be learned besides “rising early and working hard.” A few years since, probably few counties in the State followed the plan of shallow plowing more than the southern part of Queens; three to four inches was thought deep enough, and so continued to be worked till the soil was completely exhausted to that depth, while below was a hard pan like a baked brick, through which a plow share never entered.

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I have before me the diary of a farm so worked; the character of which was, “that hay enough could not be raised on twenty acres to keep a horse.” The owner of this land became a member of our society; a new impulse was given to his labors, and from having read and heard how others were improving their farms and increasing their crops, he was desirous of doing the same. Eagle D. plow was procured from Ruggles, Nourse & Mason, and in the fall of 1844, a seven acre lot was plowed up ten inches deep. When the first land was plowed, the neighbors came round to see the folly, as they termed it, of the book-farmer. One said he was killing the land in plowing up the yellow clay; another, the lot would not be worth so much as before by twenty dollars per acre; and another, he would find it all out next year. It was, however, all plowed, and pretty yellow it looked. By next spring it had changed to a brown color, and was planted with potatoes, which produced a good crop. Still the neighbors said it would never raise grain or hay; it was quite killed for all that. In September, 1845, it was well plowed, and manured with home-made poudrette; two bushels of white Hutchinson wheat, twelve quarts of timothy seed, and in the spring, ten pounds of clover sowed to the acre. This seven acre lot produced the next year thirty-four bushels of wheat to the acre, weighing sixty-two pounds per bushel, and was exhibited at our county fair, receiving the first premium. This was a hard fact to get over; some decided it was all owing to the season, and some, it happened to be sowed at the right time of the moon. The lot has now been mowed five years, and was considered this year the best piece of timothy grass between Hempstead and Brooklyn, (twenty-one miles.)

Improved plows and other implements are now in general use, and a spirit of noble emulation exists to raise the best agricultural and horticultural productions. The society is greatly encouraged by the increasing interest manifested generally, the members have come forward with great promptness to pay their dues, and during the past year about one hundred and eighty new names have been added to the list of permanent members.

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The tenth Annual exhibition of the society was held at the village of Jamaica, on the 2d day of October. The day was a beautiful one for a jubilee, and joyous and well did the farmers of Queens, and their wives, their sons, and daughters, avail themselves of it, and come forth in all their freshness, delicacy, and noble manliness. The gathering was one of the largest ever congregated in the county towns of Long Island, and every man of influence, well enough to be there, was present, also numerous delegations from other societies, some from a good distance, every place in which horses could be put, or wagons stowed, was full, and the only thing lacking was room, and on no former occasion was the county of Queens so well represented by the queens of the county. It is worthy of special remark, that notwithstanding the large number of people congregated on the fair ground, and about the village, the utmost good order and quietness was to be observed, no fighting, no drunkenness, in fact nothing that could mar the general enjoyment of the occasion.

The premium list was published early in the season, and consisted of eight silver cups, twenty-six silver medals, seven silver butter knives, one hundred and thirty-nine dollars in money in cash, one hundred and fifty diplomas, eighty volumes of Transactions, one hundred and twenty volumes of books, on various subjects, by Stephens, Youatt, Martin, Skinner, Morrell, Canfield, Johnston, Norton, Dana, Gardiner, Allen, Browne, Bement, Buist, Paxton, Parsons, Downing, Barry, Thomas, Loudon, Neill, Lindley, Breck, Bridgman, Kendrick, Miner, Townly, Beecher, and Soyer.

The exhibition ground was in the center of the village, on the land of the Hon. John A. King, to whom the society is greatly indebted for its prosperity, and was both spacious and pleasant, being surrounded by lofty and ancient trees, and most admirably

adapted for an agricultural display. Van Wagner's mammoth pavilion, nearly one hundred feet in diameter, was erected in the center, on one side were two smaller tents, one for the accommodation of the ladies, and the President's tent for receptions, two on the other side, for the Secretary and ticket seller. A ring was constructed, 360 feet in circumference, for the trial and and examination of the horses, with a stand in the center for the judges; the various grades of stock were arranged around the ground under efficient committees. The main tent was crowded during the day to its utmost capacity, and every person appeared to be well pleased.

Thorough bred and grade stock Dairy Cows.—The show of stock was more remarkable for quality than quantity. Some very fine animals were exhibited. Four silver cups, eight silver medals, $36 in cash, besides books and diplomas, were awarded.

Horses and Mules.—The exhibition of horses was very numerous and superior, and maintained the high character of the island in raising the best blooded horses in the State. Among the studs was “Young Norman,” sired by the thorough bred horse “Diligence” out of “ Joan of Arc,” and weighed on the morning of the fair 1,413 pounds. Four silver cups, five silver medals, $11 in cash, twenty volumes of books, and diplomas, were awarded.

Sheep and Swine.—The show of sheep was small; of swine good, especially those of Jeremiah Valentine, Esq., of Flushing, and Teunis Van Brunt, Esq., of Jamaica. Three silver medals, $20 in cash, besides books and diplomas, were awarded.

Butter.—The products of the dairy were highly creditable to the county, and in the opinion of the judges would compare favorably with the more celebrated dairy districts of the State. Twentythree samples were entered, fifteen from adults, and eight from girls under twenty-one years of age. · The judges reported it to be the best quality of butter they had ever seen offered for competi[Ag. Trans. 1852.]


tion ; that nine samples were so much alike, that they recommended the same premium to each. One sample of fine butter was made by Miss Anna C. Clames, of Hempstead, nine years of age. The premiums awarded, were six silver tea spoons, eleven silver butter knives, The Cottage Garden and diploma. The statements of the successful competitors all agree in the use of cold water in making the butter, and using nothing but the ground rock salt, at the rate of one ounce to the pound of butter, and no sugar or saltpeter to be worked up in it, the milk creamed and churned early in the morning; the butter to be kept in a wooden firkin or stone pot will do in winter, not to be worked so much as to destroy the grain of the butter, which they believe injurious to its preservation. They also recommend rock salt in preference to Syracuse salt.*

Grain.—The exhibition of grain was large; the wheat fine, especially the White Hutchinson and Mediterranean; and was the best display ever exhibited by the society. Nineteen volumes of books were awarded.

Vegetables and Roots.-In consequence of a severe drought, it was feared this department would be limited; we were most disagreeably disappointed; the quantity and quality were excellent, and reflected great credit on the exhibitors, many of whom are exclusively engaged as market gardeners. Mr. Theodorus Burroughs, of Newtown, exhibited Mercer potatoes, 80 of which filled a basket. Premiums—thirty-eight volumes of books and diplomas.

Agricultural Implements and Wagons.-Mr. George F. Jerome, Hempstead Branch, exhibited an improved railroad horse power, by which the cog-gearing was dispensed with, and for which a silver medal was awarded. The market wagons of Messrs. Reeves, & Co., Jamaica, were superior, one of them capable of carrying 60 bushels of potatoes to market, in baskets.

•From an analysis of the various kinds of salt made at our own works by Prof. Cook, which is published in the present volume, it will be seen that there is no better salt made than at our own works.

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