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4.05 7.24 10.29 17.53 7.15 22.44 29.59 25.18 14.95 24.35 Soda (sulphate,)

0.57 4.32 .92 5.24 2.73 0.29 3.02


1.77 1.39

15.53 16.92 0.85 12.09 12.94


49.67 38.73 Magnesia,


3.97 5.25 9 22 3.63 6.89 10.52 5.77 2.39 4.10 Alumina,

3.09 0.12 2.26 2.38 Silica,

86.80 14.36 115.44


0.35 117.94 118.29 21.50 12 14 6.07 Sulphuric acid,

0.06 0.05

2.71 0.07 10.49

10.56 5.41 5.04 3.44
Phosphoric acid,
0.60 20.74 5.02 25.76 15.02 5.54 20.56 9.80


6.80 Chlorine,

0.14 trace. 0 02 1.58 1.60


1.97 7.24 9.49 6.47
Oxide of iron,

4.42 0.79 1.35 2.14 0.20 2.35 2.55
Phosphates of iron,

7.45 3.51 0.40
Sulphate of lime,...

12.75 8.22
Carbonate of lime, ...

0.88 1.33
Sulphate of magnesia,

Organic matter,..

trace. trace.

15.43 12.66 100.89 53.00 160.00 213.00 30.00 180.00 210.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 • Grains in one pint of water in each spring.

# 25 bushels of wheat and its straw contains 210 pounds of mineral matter. † 40 bushels of barley and its straw contains 213 pounds of mineral matter. $ The per centage of dry ash produced, was 9.87, 13.60, 3.74.

MARLS. The origin of extensive marl beds has been a subject of much conjecture, and different conclusions have been adopted by various individuals who have attempted a solution of the question. A train of evidences have brought me to the adoption of the following theory, which, however, is submitted, with due deference to the opinions of those who from any cause may adopt some other. So large a body of shells could hardly be supposed to have been produced, except in some body of water of a considerable extent. And since they are fresh water shells, like those now existing in lakes and ponds in this region, it is only fair to suppose that where these marl beds are found, though now often destitute of much water, they must have been at some time past, the beds of ponds or lakes which the shell fish, from whose shields the marl is formed, inhabited. Some of these ponds or lakes seem to have been obliterated or filled up by the shell of its deceased inhabitants, thus the dead in time usurped the abode of the living, while others are now rapidly undergoing the same process. As an example, the small pond in Madison may be named, which the old people of that region say, has on one side been filled up for as much as twenty rods within their memory, say fifty years; and the beach on the side where the filling up has taken place, is composed entirely of white marl and shells. The reason why the accumulation has occurred, appears to be that the pond is sheltered on all sides by a gravel bank about eighty feet high, so that, as the shells rise to the surface, they are always floated to the side of the outlet, instead of being driven to all sides, as is often the case, where the surface is exposed to winds from various directions. At the rate at which this pond has filled up for the last fifty years, it will, in the course of two hundred years, be quite obliterated, provided the same causes continue to operate.

At Lord's pond, in Hamilton, the marl has principally accumulated upon three sides, viz: the north, east and south; the outlet of this pond, which contains about seventy-five acres, has been lowered about one foot and a half, by which its area was considerably diminished, and the shores before mirey, rendered quite solid.

While standing upon the marl beach, small shells, such as are found in the marl, were observed floating to the shore one after another, and lodging upon the beach. These shells, are of themselves, heavier than water, and would not float unless buoy'd up by air or some æriform gas; all the foregoing circumstances being taken into the account, it appears naturally to suggest the following conclusion : "that the marl beds are composed principally of shells either whole or ground into powder by pressure, and the action of the waves; that the shell fish inhabit the bottom of the lake where they live and die; but when putrefaction takes place gases are formed, which being retained in the chambers of the shell, bring it up to the surface, when it is driven to the shore by the wind, or floats there by the current."

This process carried on for ages, would produce extensive deposits, and if not arrested, would eventually fill up and obliterate bodies of water of moderate extent. In this way, if the current flowing from the pond was large, a portion of the shells would be washed out of the pond or lake, and form deposits marl along the stream, which would account for such deposits often found in beds along the course of creeks.


The Madison County Agricultural Society owes its origin to the act“ to promote agriculture," passed by the State Legislature May 5, 1811. Under this law the annual sum of 120 dollars was apportioned to the county of Madison, under certain conditions, which were complied with, by the formation of a County Agricultural Society, and the collection of upwards of one hundred and twenty dollars as fees for membership.

To form the society, a meeting of the citizens of the county was assembled in the court house at Morrisville, on the first day of September, 1811, and organized by electing J. D. Ledyard, of Cazenovia, Chairman; and H. G. Warner, of Sullivan, Secretary.

A committee of five was appointed to draft a constitution, viz: Jonathan Woodward, of Cazenovia, David Dunbar, of Hamilton, Ezra Leland and A. S. Sloan, of Eaton, and H. G. Warner, of Sullivan, who reported a constitution, which was adopted. The constitution having been signed by more than fifty members, the following officers were elected : J. D. Ledyard, of Cazenovia, President; Elijah Morse of Eaton, H. G. Warner, of Sullivan, J. H. Dunbar, of East Hamilton, Vice Presidents; Alexander Krumbhaar, of Cazenovia, Corresponding Secretary; A. S. Sloan, of Eaton, Recording Secretary ; Uriah Leland, of Eaton, Treasurer; and fourteen managers, one from each town. Since that time the following gentlemen have presided and zealously promoted the agricultural interests of the county: 1812-3, George B. Rowe, Lenox; 1844-5, Seneca B. Burchard, Eaton; 1816-7, John Williams, Cazenovia ; 1848-9, Benjamin Enos, DeRuyter ; 1850, Lewis Raynor, Cazenovia ; 1851, James H. Dunbar, East Hamilton; 1852, Elijah Morse, Eaton.

The fairs and cattle shows of the society have been held annually at the various central villages in the county, and have uniformly been occasions of much interest. The farmers and mechanics of the county have brought to the yearly festivals, for exhibi

tion, the fruits of their intelligence and industry, accompanied by their wives, sons and daughters, and enjoyed the holidays thus afforded, in a rational and most satisfactory manner. The cattle shows have been attended by a large concourse of all classes of our inhabitants, and their salutary influences upon those not directly contributing to the articles on exhibition have been manifest, exciting them to emulate their more energetic or successful neighbors. Thus a wide spread influence has been exerted throughout our farming community. Addresses upon some subject intimately connected with the interests and operations of the farmer, have been listened to, and become the theme of discussion among the various circles of industry within our borders. Until the present year, the exhibition of articles have been opened to all free; but the experiment was made at the last show, of erecting an enclosure, and charging an admittance fee of 12į cents. The plan is approved, and has added to the funds of the society, a sum of over two hundred dollars; this will doubtless be pursued at the future shows of the society. The first premiums on the leading articles exhibited, have been awarded to the following persons since the foundation of the society:

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I. S. Pierce,

D. Hess, . 1843,.. S. Spring,

I. S. Pierce, S. Burchard, 1844,. . N. Tidd, 66 bu., .. S. T. Fairchild,... JA. S. Hyatt, 1815,.. S. Spring, 67 bu... IJ. N. Dunbar, s. A. Warner,

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