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Mr. Potier's Statement. To Lewis Raynor, Benjamin Enos, Elijah Morse : Gentlemen': In reply to the questions proposed by the Madison county Agricultural Society to the competitor for the premium for the best cultivated farm, the following answers are respectfully submitted : My farm contains 75 acres; 65 are under cultivation, and the remainder wood land; this is the fourth year that I have occupied it. The usual depth of plowing is from 9 to 10 inches. I have * used the Michigan sub-soil plow with good results. The manure is made fronı the hay and straw grown on the farm. With the straw the cattle yards are kept constantly littered, and it is freely used as bedding in the horse, cow and ox stables. The barn yard is arranged so as to retain, as much as possible, the urine and water of the yard. Also, reservoirs are in the stables, filled with charcoal dust, for saving the urine. I also feed from 8 to 10 steers, in winter; I feed the greater part of the grain I raise to my stock; make from 125 to 175 load of fine or short manure annually; pile the manure from the yard in May, turn it in July, and in the fall it is nicely rotted for use; apply to hops, teasels and hoed crops from 20 to 25 loads per acre. I sow in the spring on my meadows and pastures, two bushels of plaster to the acre; have never received much benefit from lime; my average number of stock, for the year, is about 20 head of cattle, 4 horses, 7 sheep, and 5 hogs.
Grass lands. Clover and Timothy are the grasses grown on this farm, from 14 to18 quarts per acre, are sown, in the spring; usually seed after barley; I have cut, this year, from 24 acres, 61 tons of hay.
Rotation of crops on three years courses. Plow green sward in fall; plant corn from the 10th to the 20th of May; second year, oats; third year, barley and seed down; have used leached ashes with good results, from 60 to 100 load of which are annually applied to meadows.
Tillage Crops, this year, are 3 acres of corn, 6 of oats, 5 of barley, 5 of hops, 2) of teasels, i potatoes, f beans, i carrots, 1 of
spring wheat, which is a bad failure, in consequence of the weevil; sowed the Labrador the 18th of April. All the farming operations are conducted with as much accuracy as possible. All the crops are measured and weighed, and the results carefully recorded, a journal is kept of each days'work in which the labor performed by every man is recorded ; and in a book, kept for the purpose, is noted the number of days work bestowed on each field, with the expenses for labor, the product from the crop, and the profit or loss from the same. (For an account of Mr. Potter's crops, see accounts in a previous part of the report, on profits of farming.) My books are kept in such a manner, that the expenses of the farm and the income from it can readily be seen, and an accurate balance of debt and credit can be made at any time. This system I consider not only necessary to an economical management of the farm, but highly satisfactory to the farmer, and will, in my opinion, amply repay for the time and labor it requires.
I have adopted the following form for making daily memorandu, the lots in my place all being numbered.
January 18, ..... Today thrashing oats, No 17,... Road.
à day cleaning up oats, No. 17,.
day repairing hop boxes, .. 1 day farm. 1 day drawing gravel in lane,
In the class of horses, beside those to which premiums were awarded, was a number of all ages, making a splendid show of fine animals. The “ Highlanders,” and “ Kentucky Hunters," and more recently the "Morgan Horse," have done much for Madison county, by way of introducing a fine and serviceable class of horses.
The "fleecy tribe” were well represented by a number of "pens,” some of which, for fineness of wool, others for symmetry of form and bulk, and others again for weight of fleece, place this county high in the scale of excellence. But, perhaps, the most attract. ive class in the exhibition for numbers, variety, and superior excellence, were neat cattle. The Grades, Devons and Shorthorns, vied with each other for admirers, and many there were of noble specimens in competition. Two extraordinary specimens of grades, challenged special admiration.
One, a yearling bull, out of the old Grant bull, well known in this and Oneida county. He was admired for his clean and perfect form, and his dark red color; while his weight, 1,336 lbs., was almost incredible. The other a yoke of two year old steers, exhibited by H. P. Potter, without any known pedigree, out of the Ackley bull and native cows; they weighed together, about 3,600 lbs. These specimens, and others, from that region place, East Hamilton, almost beyond competition in the line of Natives and Grades.
Two herds of Devons, both from Hainilton, owned respectively by John Muir, Sen., and David Osgood, were well represented; these herds have been bred from the purest and best blood, and together with a few other samples, offered a spirited competition, each herd bearing away a portion of the premiums given to that class.
The Short-horns found less competition, since the pure blood is confined almost exclusively to one herd; yet our citizen, S. P. Chapman, though so fortunate as to own the premium Short-horns of the State, did not succeed in bearing away all the premiums, showing that other herds of these fine animals are being established in our borders, that make no unworthy pretensions to excellence. Mr. Alpheus Morse's show of cattle, contained many well bred
animals of the Short-horn grade, and a few of “ Herd Book” notoriety. But among all this exhibition of fine cattle, the premium list will be a guide to the best individuals in each class. The show of cattle was a grand one; yet there were many good cattle that should have been there, lest at home. It is so easy for a man to come by degrees to the conclu. sion, that his cattle are nearly or quite as good as can be produced ; that if a person has a good animal, he should not fail to present it at the fair, for here, by actual comparison with the best, he may be undeceived if he is mistaken, while on the contrary, if he is so fortunate as to possess a superior animal, he may thus come in possession of a certain consciousness, and record that his well directed efforts have been crowned with success, and be encouraged : to continue his labors.
The show of milch cows was small. This department of breeding is much neglected; upon no branch of industry more than the dairy, does the prosperity of this county depend. There should be a sufficient premium offered upon cows producing the greatest amount of butter and of cheese, for a stated time during the season, say ten days in June and ten days in August, requiring a statement of the amount of milk given during the time of trial, and the richness of the milk, or the number of pounds requisite to make a pound of butter or cheese. This premium should be upon the cows; all or a part of the dairy to be exhibited at the fair, accompanied by the prescribed statements, and not upon the butter or cheese produced. It gives much trouble and labor to conduct the experiments necessary to determine the specified particulars, hence a premium should be offered that would in itself be an inducement to make the experiments. These are points so important to be known, that the society could well afford to divert the premiums from other objects, at least for a time, that public attention might be called directly to the quality as well as quantity of the milk produced by cows of various breeds.
The show of butter was good, and the specimens of a very creditable character. That of cheese, however, though quite as large, was not remarkable for its quality.