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1810 21,933

62,919 1841 2,531

187,665 1842 2,297

107,113 1843

920

373,417 1844 1,435

438,219 1815 1,682

597,027 1816

258

225,021 1847 1,680

480,987 1848 14,399

267,913 1849

920

363,270 1850 9,296

207,769 The Collector of Boston accompanied the above statement with the following note:

“ Custom House, Boston,

September 8, 1851. “Sir-I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your circular, with your note of the 4th inst.

6. The records of this office do not exhibit the facts necessary to enable me to answer all your inquiries. “ Prior to the passage of the act of Congress, of 1820, chap. 11, the imports and exports were not rendered, as they have been subsequently to that date. Therefore, I cannot furnish replies beyond what is contained in the annexed statement, unless you would like the quantities from 1820 to 1840, which could be transcribed in a few days.

“Very Respectfully,
16 Your obedient servant,
"P. GREELY, JR.

Collector." “E. C. Adams, Syracuse, N. Y."

“P. S. The first export was in 1789–90, no record is kept of shipments to ports in the United States, including California; shipments to ports in Mexico are trifling."

Port of SAVANNAH. The only letter received in answer to the circulars sent to the sourthern ports, is the following:

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“Custom House, SAVANNAH,

Collector's Office, June 23, 1851. “Sir, I have just received your circular, making inquiries about the dairy. The subject you refer to is one of interest, and has occupied my attention heretofore, mainly, however, with a view to find out the quality of butter and cheese prepared for this market, as there are no exports of those articles from this port. This is a market which consumes large quantities of butter and cheese, and exports cotton and rice, principally. When you get your report completed, if you have it printed, you will confer a favor if you will forward a copy to my address.

“ I have the honor to be,

6 Very respectfully,
6 Your obedient servant,
“HERRIMAN ROBERTS,

66 Collector." “ E. C. Adams, Esq., Syracuse, N. Y.

The suggestion is doubtless here appropriate, that more full and explicit knowledge of the manner in which these articles should be prepared for the southern market, might extend the trade and manufacture, on remunerating terms, and agreeable and satisfactory to both parties. For, however successfully, in the true spirit of enterprise, our southern brethren can compete with us of the north, in the manufacture of cotton fabrics, in the matter of cheese, we have about the same advantage of them-probably more—in the production of the raw material, that they have of us in the matter of cotton. So that however soon we may be forced to yield our present ascendancy over them in the manufacture of cotton, the cheese press will for some time remain among the insignia of the agricultural triumphs of the North. Our unequalled adaptation and our skill at one end, and their unappeasable appetites at the other,constituting, as already hinted, one of the bonds to hold us together under the old roof-tree.

How brief is the period since bread-stuffs, butter and cheese, were sent from New York to Ohio, for the use of the people who had just settled in her wilds! And yet to-day, New-York and Ohio, are the two first Agricultural States in the Union.

The rapid improvement and extension of the railway system, particularly in the communications between the city of New-York and Ohio and the great west are to exert a most favorable influence upon this manufacture in Western New-York and the Western States. It brings competition within the reach of all; and competition compels excellence. The price of butter and cheese is affected by the condition of the packages in which they reach the market. Frequent transhipment, changes from one mode of conveyance to another, have the effect to place the outward appear ance of these articles in a condition which knocks them down in the market, five, ten, or fifteen per cent., as the case may be ; a reduction which, if not ruinous, shows how great the profit might be under more favorable circumstances of transit. Those who daily note the New-York Price Current, have observed that Ohio cheese is usually quoted at from one and a half to two cents below the New-York article, and butter from two to three cents below. Is there any reason for this, other than the one already assigned ? Again, is there any reason why Onondaga or Monroe butter should not hold the same position in the New-York market, as that of Orange? None, whatever, which cannot be removed ; and if it be a fact, that Orange county butter is the best, it is not because as good cannot be made in Onondaga, and Monroe and Genesee, but because equal facilities for market have not yet stimulated the competition necessary. The same is true of Ohio and of the whole west. The competition afforded by the numerous lines of railway, now completed or in process of construction, will at an early day, bring the productions of all these localities up to “high water mark ;" in other words, the operation of the unerring law. of self interest will bring them there, just as soon as that sleepless principle of human action has a chance to work. .

Of the future, as regards the West, it is hardly worth while to speak. No man, who is capable of estimating the strength of the West, after it shall have advanced from infancy to manhood, would venture to place his anticipations on paper, unless he were willing to be written down an enthusiast or a dreamer. One result of its wonderful growth and development in the future should be here referred to: In order to maintain an ascendency in the market, we of New-York, cannot remain at a stand still as to the quality of the article we produce, nor in the condition in which it is presented for sale. For the same article will soon be delivered from Indianapolis, Dayton, Milwaukie, or Dubuque, at New-York, in as, good condition as from Rochester, Penn Yan or Syracuse; and, for all practical purposes of a market, almost as quick!

The samples of cheese offered for our inspection, were, with few exceptions, of an extra quality, and those interested must bear in mind that when two articles are of nearly equal excellence, the task of discriminating is both delicate and difficult.

Your committee were unanimous in awarding the “County" premium, to the county of Jefferson, and would add, that Herki. mer was hard to beat; their exhibition of cheese was almost faultless, one single cheese decided in favor of Jefferson.

Your committee have awarded on cheese one year old and over as follows:

1st premium, Guy Reed, Richmond, Ontario Co., $20. 2. E. F. Carter, Le Ray, Jefferson Co., $10. 3. C. W. Eells, Westmoreland, Oneida Co., $5. 4. Wm. P. Ottley, Phelps, Ontario Co., Trans.

Less than one year old.--1. Geo. Hammell, Rome, Oneida Co., $20. 2. Chas. Benjamin, Rushford, Allegany Co., $10. 3. Almon Benjamin, Centerville, Allegany Co., $5. 4. E. & H. Colvin, Hamburgh, Erie Co., Trans.

Best six dairies from any connty, County of Jefferson, $30. Moses Eames, Rutland, Jefferson ; Gardner Towne, Rutland; E. F. Carter, Le Ray; George Webb, Pamela ; M. Bryant, Watertown; P. Hardy, Le Ray, Dairymen..

One remark and we close; there were two samples of cheese exhibited, that were, in our opinion, of too high a color, and but [Ag. Trans. 1852.)

7 7

for the drug introduced into the body of the cheese, would have ranked much higher in the opinion of your committee; and we cannot close this report, without expressing our individual disap proval of the custom of introducing or using a drug in the article, which, to say the least, adds nothing to its taste or appearance.

SUGAR. Judges.-E. M. Bradley, Ch'n, East Bloomfield; F. F. Wilson, Rochester.

Best 25 lbs. sugar, Benj. Gaus, jr., E. Bloomfield, Ontario, $10. 2. John A. Sherman, Rutland, Jefferson, $5. 3. 0. S. Wiley, Ogden, $3. 4. J. C. Howes, Sweden, Trans. Luman Shepherd, Avery Blodgett, commended.

Thayer Gaus, East Bloomfield, sample of maple molasses, commended.

HONEY. Judges.-Charles G. Irish, Ch'n, Buffalo; Andrew E. Pardee, Rochester ; James Lyon, Irondequoit.

Best 20 lbs. Edward & Platt, Brooklyn, $5. 2. Caroline Tyce, Webster, $3. 3. E. P. Carter, Le Ray, Jefferson co., $2.

R. H. Brown, Greece, Monroe co., for hive of bees, is awarded Transactions.

Curtis Coe, Springport, Cayuga County, for four cups of honey, is awarded Transactions.

GRAIN AND SEEDS. Judges.- Isaac Parker, Ch'n, Potsdam; T. J. Folwell, Romulus.

Best sample winter wheat, not less than one barrel, Anthony Kentz, Greece, blue stem wheat, $5.

Thornby A. H. McLain, fine sample Troy wheat, but not sufficient quantity

Best sample spring wheat, Truman Mattison, Penfield, club wheat, $5. 2. Charles W. Eells, Westmoreland, Oneida county, $3.

Best sample of rye, Daniel P. Bigelow, Baire Center; Multicole rye, $5. 2. E. Sherman, Crawford, Orange county, $3.

Best sample barley, 0. Howland, Owego, two rowed variety, $5.

Best sample Indian corn, C. W. Eells, Westmoreland, $5. 2. James Cobb, Brighton, $3.

Best sample Buckwheat, Henry Wier, Pittstown, Rensselaer, $2. 2. William Baker, Lima, $2.

Second best sample timothy seed, E. Sherman, Crawford, Orange, $2.

Best sample of crops cultivated and raised on any one farm, tastefully arranged and exhibited on a cart, General Rawson Harmon, Wheatland, $10. 2. W. P. Otley, Phelps, $3.

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