« EdellinenJatka »
“Whereas, for many years past, a padlock has been exhibited in the window of the Messrs. Bramah's shop, in Piccadily, to which was appended a label with these words; “ The artist who will make an instrument that will pick or open this lock, will receive 200 guineas the moment it is produced ;” and Mr. Hobbs of America, having obtained permission from the Messrs. Pramah, to make a trial of his skill, in opening said lock, Messrs. Bramah and Mr. Hobbs, severally agreed that Mr. George Rennie, F. R. S., London, and Professor Cowper, of King's College, London, and Dr. Black of Kentucky, should be the Arbitrators between the parties. On the 23d of July, it was agreed, that the lock should be enclosed in a block of wood and screwed to a door, and the screws sealed, the key-hole and hasp only being accessible to Mr: Hobbs; and when he was not operating, the key-hole to be covered with a band of iron, and sealed by Mr. Hobbs; that no other person should have access to the key-hole. The key was also sealed up, and not to be used till Mr. Hobbs had finished his operations. If Mr. Hobbs succeeded in picking or opening the lock, the key was to be tried, and if it locked and unlocked the padlock, it should be considered a proof that Mr. IIobbs had not injured the lock, but picked and opened it, and was entitled to the 200 guineas. On the same day, July 23d, Messrs. Bramah gave notice to Mr. Hobbs, that the lock was ready for operations. On July 21th, Mr. Hobbs commenced his operations, and on August 23d, Mr. Hobbs exhibited the lock open to Dr. Black and Prof. Cowper, Mr. Rennie being out of town. Dr. Black and Prof. Cowper, then called on Mr. Edward Bramah and Mr. Barzalgette, and showed them the lock open. They then withdrew, and Mr. Hobbs locked and unlocked the padlock, in the presence of Dr. Black and Prof. Cowper. Between July 24th and August 23d, Mr. Hobbs' operations were for a time suspended, so that the number of days occupied by him were 16, and the number of hours spent by him in the room with the lock was 51. On Friday, August 29th, Mr. Hobbs again locked and unlocked the padlock in the presence of Mr. George Rennie, Prof. Cowper, Dr. Black, Mr. Edward Bramah, Mr. Barzalgette, and Mr. Abrahant. On Saturday, August 30th, the key was tried, and the padlock was locked and unlocked with
the key, by Prof. Cowper, Mr. Rennie and Mr. Gelbertson, thus proving that Mr. Hobbs had fairly opened the lock without injuring it. Mr. Hobbs then formally produced the instruments with which he had opened the lock. We are, therefore, unanimously of opinion, that Messrs. Branah have given Mr. Hobbs a fair opportunity of trying his skill, and that Mr. Hobbs has fairly picked or opened the lock, and we decide that Messrs. Bramah & Co. do now pay to Mr. Hobbs, 200 guineas.
GEORGE RENNIE, Chairman.
G. R. BLACK.
This document is conclusive on the merits of the question. " This rough lesson will probably lead Messrs. Bramah & Chubb to devise some means for rendering their patents more secure, and we have no doubt they will succeed.” “An attempt will be made, it is said, to pick the American lock, and when it is remembered that our cousins show several locks, all of which are represented as perfectly secure, it is high time for our lock makers either to show that the American patents are equally unsafe as their own, or to acknowledge themselves beaten, and endeavor to make better locks for the future."
The trial was made upon Day & Newell's lock, by one of the most expert locksmiths to be found in England, and after a trial of thirty days, the lock was returned by the judges, who were agreed upon, uninjured, the operator not having made an impression upon it. So completely was the security of the American locks established, that they were ordered for the Bank of England, and in other directions, where safety was required—and a company has been organized for their manufacture in England, of which Mr. Hobbs is the managing director.
Prize Medals were awarded to the United States, to Day & Newell for their lock (with special approbation,) to Adams & Co., for bank lock; Arrowsmith, for Permutation locks; McGregor & Lee for
bank lock, and the exhibitors claimed equal security with Day & Newell's, though they were not put to the test so far as I was inforned.
Two Bell Telegraphs were exhibited from this country; one of which, c. Howland, exhibitor, received a medal. The other, exhibited by W. T. Brooks, New-York, Jackson's annunciator, appeared to me quite equal to Howland's but the Jury thought differently, and, doubtless for satisfactory reasons. G. Hotchkiss, of Broome County, exhibited his Noddle Iron and Tram Block, for saw mills, which have been much approved in this country. Their great simplicity and cheapness were recommendations which should secure their adoption where needed.
Class 23. Working in Precious Metals, Jewelry, 8c.—This class contained many of the richest specimens of articles of vertu and luxury in the Palace. The exhibitors were from England and the continent; the United States not exhibiting until near the close, when a service of Gold plate was presented. The Electroplating was of a very rich and interesting character, and many of the articles were of such elegance of design, as well as perfection of finish, as to arrest the attention of those who were more attracted by ornament and display, than by utility alone. The Electro process was exhibited in the Palace. The operation is thus performed: Having placed silver in solution in a glass jar, which communicates with a battery, by means of a wire, a brass metal is attached to another piece of wire, and the metal being immersed in the solution; the wire that holds it is hooked on to the wires connected with the battery; the instant the contact of the two wires takes place the metal is covered with a coat of silver, By the same process, all Electro-plating is performed. Any metals may, by this process, be deposited ; and one part of an article may be coated with gold another with silver, a third with platina, and so on. I was at Birmingham, and examined Elkington & Co.'s establishment, one of the most extensive in the country, and where articles of every variety are manufactured. A Council Medal was awarded this firm, for their artistic application of the Electrotype.
France, Zollverein, Russia, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, Hamburg and Sardinia exhibited, most of them largely. Jewels and Jewelry were among the articles for which prizes were awarded. The Queen of Spain's Jewels, exhibited by Lamorier, of France, were the most attractive in the exhibition, and a Council Medal was awarded.
A large piece of native Gold from California, worth from $3,000 to $1,000, was exhibited by a London firm. A service of Gold Plate made of California gold, a testimonial to E. K. Collins from the citizens of New-York, for establishing the American Steam Packet Line, attracted much attention for its richness and the remarkable purity and beauty of the metal. Some of the exhibitors of Gold and Silver Plate in the English department had very extensive collections ; one, more than one hundred articles of the very richest and most expensive character, valued probably at more than $100,000. A Silver Table Top, 55 inches in diameter, weighing 900 ounces, manufactured for the Pasha of Aleppo by a Birmingham firm, was among the most expensive of the articles. I select from the Zollverein department one of the rich articles which received a Council Medal, as illustrative of much of this department, in its liberal expenditure of money on articles, in themselves, of little moment-sett of Chessmen and Board in Renaissance style (as it is called); the squares of the Board alternately Tortoise Shell and Mother of Pearl. The framework of the stand is silver and gold, inlaid with rubies; each corner the bust of an angel, the wings in silver and blue; the sides ornamented with silver swans and festoons of gold and rubies. The Chessmen are in gold and silver; the principal figures are costume portraits of Emperors of Germany and Kings of France; their retinue, Knights and Castles mounted on elephants, and men at arms for the pawns. Rubies are profusely introduced upon the dresses of the principal personages and the pedestals.
The great Koh-i-noor diamond, or mountain of light, belonging to the Queen, was exhibited in this class. Its value is noticed else
where ; its brillianacy was not remarkable, and all the efforts made to display it to advantage failed to secure that brilliancy which many of the other diamonds had. As this class was peculiarly devoted to those articles of vertu andluxury which alone find their way to the habitations of the wealthy and are not among those things which specially contribute to the real comfort of our world, a description of the varied treasures which afforded to the visitors that saw them probably as much real enjoyment as to the possessor, would not, it is presumed, be desired.
Class 24. Glass.—This was a very interesting and useful class, and the character of the articles exhibited such as to reflect great credit upon the exhibitors. The glass with which the Palace was mainly covered, made at Birmingham, was a striking illustration of the extent to which the manufacture is carried in England. The panes of glass on the Palace were 49 inches long. A Glass Fountain, the ornament of the Transept, was 27 feet high, of pure Aint crystal, contained upwards of 4 tons of crystal glass; the principal dish was upwards of 8 feet in diameter, and weighed before casting nearly a ton. This was manufactured at Birmingham, and was said to be the largest production of the kind ever made. It was one of the most attractive, of the many beautiful things in the Palace. Specimens of glass were exhibited in all stages of its manufacture, and models of furnaces, and the retorts and vessels used in the manufacture. Many very rich samples of colored glass were shown from several countries : England, Zollverein and Frussia, each exhibited scme very rich specimens. The process of combining colors is thus described : The object being formed first in the white transparent and colorless glass and allowed to cool until solid, is then dipped for a moment in a vat of colored glass in a state of fusion, and being suddenly withdrawn it takes away a thin coating of colored glass which immediately hardens upon it and becomes incorporated with it. The article is then shaped by the glass maker, and if cut, those parts which are cut will display the clear transparent glass, those not cut remaining coated with the color.