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In the awards made by the Jury, Chevalier Claussen received only a Prize Medal, probably on the ground that his invention is not yet so thoroughly demonstrated, practically, as to entitle it to a Council Medal—though, I believe many, who in all respects were well qualified to judge on the matter, differed with them in their opinion.
The Council Medal was awarded to the Belfast Flax Improvement for the persevering and successful efforts to improve the quality of the fiber of flax." The specimens of flax exhibited by them in great variety, showed most clearly the importance of the improvements they had effected, which were in the highest degree creditable to them, and worthy of the commendation bestowed upon the society. It would be well for our State to make similar efforts for the improvement of the various crops which are grown in the State and to encourage and develope the qualities of others which might be productive of good to our whole industria) interests.
The countries from which flax was exhibited, were England. Austria, Belgium, Canada, United States, China, France, Netherlands, New Zealand, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Norway, Van Dieman's Land and Zollverein. The flax from the various countries from which flax is imported into England, was arranged by one of the English exhibitors, in connection with hemp, illustrating very satisfactorily the qualities of flax and hemp raised in each. An arrangement of flax was also made showing the various methods in use in preparing the fibers.
Silk.—The most brilliant part of the exhibition was the silk department, especially that of manufactured fabrics. The exhibi tion of French manufacturers was remarkably rich and gorgeous. Those from Lyons, St. Etienne, Avignon and Nismes, showed a very large variety, from the simplest poplins to the most gorgeous and splendid patterns, unsurpassed by any other portion of the exhibition.
A very rich display was made in the English department, scarcely inferior to that from France. There were between eighty and ninety English exhibitors of silk goods, and some of them had the most attractive arrangement and display of any in the exhibition. The “Silk Trophy,” which was arranged in the main avenue of the Palace, composed of the richest Tissues, Brocades, Silk Damasks and Velvets, arranged around glass mirrors, excited great attention and was thronged with visitors constantly. From Spitalfield, so long celebrated in the manufacture of silk fabrics, some peculiarly rich designs were displayed. There were exhibitions from several other countries.
There was a very extensive exhibition of Woods from all parts of the world. Mr. R. L. Pell, of this State, exhibited a very extensive collection of forest and other woods, upwards of one hundred in number, grown upon his own farm in Ulster county, and received an Honorable Mention for his exhibition, and his collection, we believe, was presented by him to the Royal Commissioners. But the most perfect collection of American woods was to be seen in the English department, in a collection of woods from various parts of the world, upwards of seven hundred in nuniber, arranged geographically, accompanied with the scientific and local name of each, weight per cubic foot, and the uses of each. Probably never before has there been so much useful information afforded of the qualities and value of the woods of the world, as was contained in this collection. It was prepared by a Mr. Sanders of Wandsworth, England, and received a Prize Medal, to which, certainly, he was most justly entitled. It was a resort for every one who desired to become familiar with the productions of the world not only, but even with those of his own country; for there was more information in regard to the woods of America, than can be found by those who have not been favored with opportunities of travelling through the different States of our Union and examining critically for themselves.
In this class, Oils of various kinds were exhibited. A very choice sample of oil of peppernaint from Messrs. H. G.& L. B.
Hotchkiss of Lyons, in this State, received a Prize Medal. Its quality was very superior, and it is understood that orders for the entire manufactwe were given by a leading house in London.
STARCH.—There was a very extensive exhibition of this article, prepared from a great variety of subtances—Wheat, Rice, Sago, Potato, Indian Corn, &c., Among the samples, there was exhibited from this State, by the Oswego Starch Factory, manufactured by T. Kingsford & Sons, a very fine sample which attracted, as it de- . served, much attention, and was pronounced by the Jury equal to any they had seen-and it was awarded a Prize Medal. Inquiries were made by several dealers, as to the price at which it could be afforded in London—and if a supply can be furnished, there is no doubt of a market there for any surplus that can be manufacfactured. This establishment has been in operation since 1819, and furnishes employment for about 100 persons. The amount of Corn and Wheat annually converted into Starch is 150,000 bushels. From a chemical analysis, this Starch is found to be an article of uncommon purity, as will appear from the analysis made by A. A. Hays, State Assayer of Massachusetts.
Results of an analysis of a sample of Oswego Starch :
« The sample presented prismatic fragments of very white Starch granules, which, when magnified presented their forms and exhibited the appearances shown by Starch from grain. 1000 parts afforded, of matters soluble in cold water, and consisting of Dextrine, Gluten and Lime Salts 1.20 ; Carbonate of Lime, Phosphate of Lime and Magnesia 1.56; or, as matter apart from pure Starch, in all, 2.76 in 1000 parts. This proportion is much less than commercial Starch affords generally.
From the result here stated, it will readily be inferred that this is an article of uncommon purity. In the originate proportion of moisture, nearly absolute freedom from other vegetable principles and earthly matters, it agrees with the finest qualities, while its whiteness' and absence of organic acids, indicate that excellent materials only are used in its production.”
Colgate & Co., N.Y., whose Starch has long been celebrated in this country for its purity, had some of their Starch on exhibition, where its reputation was fully sustained, and a Prize Medal was awarded.
Class 5.-B. Machines for direct use, including Carriages, and Railway and Naval Mechanism.
MACHINERY.-In this department, as was to have been expected, the English display a far more extensive assortment than all the other nations. The exhibition shows what perfection has been attained, and the beauty of finish and arrangement, is certainly worthy of all praise. Of machinery, of really new principles, there did not appear to me to be much in the English department, and one of the English writers, in speaking of this department says: “We could not see any machine of new principle or construction, there are improvements here and there, rendering the machines more perfect.” There was much however, showing the great progress which has been made for the last fifty years, that bears a most important part in the great progress which has been made in our world. I was informed by a very skilful mechanic from our State, who examined the machinery with great minuteness, that very many of the most valuable improvements were taken from American inventions, and the very machines were named in which they were to be found.
A writer in reviewing what has been done, says: “Steam navigation was not only practically unknown at the close of the last century, but in England was held to be visionary by Watts ; now, however, thousands of steam vessels plough the ocean, and fill the harbors of every commercial nation of importance, and pass from one continent to another, with a facility and certainty that brings America and Europe within almost a week's time of each other.
“In railways, all that was practically known at the beginning of the century, was a few rude colliery tram roads, rudely constructed wood or cast iron rails, and traversed by ruder wagons, drawn by horses, at the rate of three or four miles per hour; and even as late as 1824, George Stephenson, the father of the locomotive, s'ated
at a meeting at Leeds, that “he hoped yet to move the trains at the rate of 10 miles an hour; and Nicholas Wood in the first edition of his · Treatise on Railways, published about the same time, speaks of the notion of such speed, as being by its very extravagance, likely to retard the progress of the railway by steam. Stephenson lived to see 80 miles an hour accomplished, and the whole system of stage coach arrangements superseded, and the manufacturer at the extreme of England, enabled to proceed to the metropolis in the morning, transact his business and return to his home the same evening. If progress has been made in these departments, so also have surprising changes been effected in the manufacturing branches.” The Jaquard loom, has taken the place of the old hand-loom, exhibiting its wonder working power; and the power loom by Bigelow, for weaving Brussels carpets, has from our own country through the great exhibition, astonished the world at the accomplishment of what before was deemed inapproachable by the aid of machinery; weaving Brussels carpets by the power loom. The London Morning Chronicle in speaking of the United States department said: “This department has again received an impor. tant accession of strength, in the shape of Brussels carpets, woven upon power looms. Although various attempts have been made to adapt the power loom to carpet weaving in this country, there is not we believe, at this moment, any machinery perfected for the object; our American brethren have gained another step ahead of us, and have won another laurel, on this well contested field of industrial arts."
The printing press too, throwing off 15,000 sheets per hour, instead of 250, as formerly the extent of the hand press, and that in England, as late as 1814. But to crown all, the Electric Telegraph brought into real acting life, by our own Morse, now sends the intelligence from island to continent, as well as across continents, with the rapidity of lightning, actually annihilating time—and this all exhibited before the world in the great exhibition. These results of the advancement of machinery and engineering upon the ocean and upon the land, are truly wonderful, and are exerting an influence upon the world's progress of the most gratifying