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of in London, for a very large sum of money. This improvement reflects great credit on our country-and whatever differences existed as to other articles, as to the anti-friction presses, there was but one opinion, among men competent to judge, of their great superiority.
The following flattering testimonial to the value and superiority of one of Mr. Dicks' Presses, over any in use in England for blind stamping book cases, was given during the exhibition by one of the leading houses in the trade in London:
SHOE LANE, LONDON, August 18, 1851. “Dear Sir-We have now had sufficient experience in the working of your press at the Exhibition, to be able to form an estimate of its merits for blind stamping book covers, and we have no hesitation in saying, that it is vastly superior to any machine for that purpose now in use in London. We consider that it supplies a want which we have felt for some time, no improvement having been made in the machinery in use in London, for the last twenty years, which is now quite inadequate to the wants of the trade.
We have been working a large die in the Exhibition, with your machine, and have taken impressions at the rate of 20 per minute, or 1,200 per hour. Our own press will enable us to take only five impressions per minute, or 300 per hour; and to obtain this we require three powerful men, two to work, and the other as a relay to relieve the other two, every half hour or so. Your press being worked by steam power, we cannot draw a comparison between them as to the labor required, but our opinion is, that in your press was worked by hand, a man and boy would do more work than three men could do at our own press.
We remain, sir, yours truthfully,
LEIGHTON & HODGES." J. E. HOLMES, Esq.
The Jacquard loom, invented by Barlow of London, for the ex peditious weaving of figured goods, received a Council Medal.
The work of this truly wonderful loom seemed to be the perfection of inventive power—and is only excelled, probably, by the Brussels carpet loom of our own countryman, Bigelow.
Hibbert, Platt & Sons, in the English department, exhibited a complete series of machines employed in the cleaning, preparation and spinning of cotton, showing the whole process to the weaving inclusive. A Council Medal was awarded.
The cotton machinery in operation was a very interesting feature in the Exhibition ; and everything that relates to the advance made in this branch of industry cannot be otherwise than interesting to our country. It is the great and important manufacturing interest, which in connection with the other branches of manufactures, has given to England much of her importance and wealth. It is important to the United States, not only as regards our own manufactures, but also the supply which we are able to furnish to England in the shape of raw material. In 1819–50, the exports were $71,948,616—of which England received $16,876,098—and for the year 1851 the exports have been about $112,000,000—and probably a proportionate amount to England. A brief account, therefore, of the progress of this branch of industry, as illustrated in the exhibition, it is conceived, will not be devoid of interest.
The description of this machinery, as given by an English writer, is interesting from its history, presenting a most strange series of struggles, vicissitudes and successful results. In tracing its history, however, it is unpleasant to find those who gave birth to the first ideas of improvement, those who have real claims to originality of invention, deserted and ruined in consequencem whilst others, taking up the same ideas, with means at command, carry them to perfection and secure fortunes. But this has been ever thus, in every period of the history of the inventive portion of the world. As late as 1760, the machines used for the manufacture of cotton in England, were as simple as those used in India, of which specimens were seen in the exhibition. In 1738, the fly shuttle was contrived, which simply consisted in the weaver
sending the shuttle backward and forward through the warp by means of strings in each hand. This was a great improvement, because, one man could weave cloth of such width, that previously required two persons. But this was not applied to cotton generally until 1760, having been first used in the woolen manufactures. Spinning by machinery, is said to have been invented by John Wyatt, for which a patent was taken out in 1738. Yet, Sir R. Arkwright, perfected the machine and took out a patent for his spinning machine in 1769. · In 1770, the spinning Jenny was patented by Hargreaves. It is said, he obtained the idea from seeing a one thread machine overturned upon the floor, when both wheel and spindle continued to revolve. This threw the spindle from a horizontal to an upright position. He concluded that a number of threads might be spun at once, by having a number of spindles placed side by side in an upright position. The Jenny was then invented by which the roving, which is a loosely twisted thread, about the thickness of the wick of a candle is drawn out, and spun into fine yarn. In carding, the greatest improvements were perfected by Mr. Knight, in 1775
In 1776 the mule was invented by Samuel Crampton, but was not generally known until about 1785, and it was sometime before it was brought to perfection. The most successful self-acting machine in England was invented by Mr. Roberts of Manchester, in 1825.
An immense impulse was given to the cotton manufacture by the introduction of the steam engine by Bolton and Watt. Their first engine was applied to a cotton mill in 1785.
The cotton machinery in the exhibition shows the progress which has been made; the principle is not materially different, but the cotton undergoes a greater number of operations, so that the fibers may be in a better condition to undergo a more perfect process of spinning, but the machines are substantially the same except having kept pace with the improvement of mechanism, rendering the machines more perfect. From what I have seen of our cot
ton machinery I am satisfied that it is in every respect equal, if not superior, to that shown in the exhibition.
WOOLEN MACHINERY and Silk Machinery was exhibited in operation, most perfect of its kind, and admirably adapted to the work required.
Coining Presses.—A very ingenious coining press, acting by an eccentric, which coined at the rate of from thirty to forty pieces per minute, completing the coin and milling the edge in let:ers at one motion, was exhibited from Cologne, Germany, and received a Council Medal. In the English department one was shown which also received a Council Medal, but that only gave the impression on the face of the coin. It was, however, an improvement upon former presses, and had it not been for the German press would doubtless have been considered the most perfect of its kind.
In this class, prize medals were awarded to the United States exhibitors, Lerow& Blodget, for their Rotary Sewing Machine; C. Starr, New-York, for his Book Binding Machine; to Woodbury, Massachusetts, for his Planing Machine; to Farl & Co., for Card Clothing; Eastman's Stone Cutting Machines ; Lowell Machine Shop, for a self acting Lathe and Power Loom; Hayden, for a Draining Regulator for cotton.
Fig. 1 is a perspective view, and fig. 2 is a plan view of the shuttle race: the same letters refer to like parts.
This machine is represented as driven by a band from a line of shafting. A is the bed-plate of the machine; B B are the posts ; CC is a feed ring with fine teeth on it, to feed the cloth, to be sewn into the needle. This ring has not a horizontal motion, like the old machine, but is vertical, and much more convenient. It is moved round by a ratchet, F, which has a spring, G, attached to it. This ratchet catches into teeth on the back part of said ring C, and is operated by the revolving cam pulley driven by the band. This ratchet moves the ring so as to move the cloth forward