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I may not be allowed, for John Vander Waeyen, the liberty to dissent, in what pray shall I be allowed it? But I will suffer no mortal ever to deprive me of this liberty. But, good sir, whenever I am to dispute, I defire my method of writing may be as different from yours as possible. While your language breathes nothing but harshness, mine shall be all mildness. As in this difpute, I have struck out every word, that had but the least tendency to harshness, and substituted fofter. And let this suffice, by way of specimen, concerning the types.


Of the Sacraments of grace down to Abraham.



E have explained with what wisdom and condescen

fion, God saw it proper to confirm and seal the promises of his covenants by certain sacred symbols. As he did this under the covenant of works, fo especially he was likewise pleased to do the same upon introducing the covenant of grace. To which, under whatever æconomy it stood, he appended, as it were, certain peculiar signs and seals, which the church has, now for many ages paft, been accustomed to call facraments. In some of the types, which we have already explained, and in others of the hike nature, there was also, indeed, something facramental; as they prefigured the Messiah and the spiritual benefits he was to procure for his people : yet more especially we call by the name of facraments, those things, which were given by God to man, to be seals of his covenant, or earnests and pledges of his favour.

II. And these again, were indeed, very different; consisting either in things natural, on which God infcribed that character in order to be vouchers and feals of his teftaments. To which Calvin refers Noah's ark, Instit. lib. iv. c. 14.$18. Or in things miraculous; such as the manna, which was rained down from heaven, and the water issuing out of the rock, which constituted the miraculous meat and drink of the Israelites in the wilderness: or in certain ceremonies, and sacred rites, instituted by God to represent fpiritual things. Some were also extraordinary, in favour of some certain persons, and but of a short continu

Others ordinary, given for the use of the whole church, and not to cease but with that particular æconomy of the covenant. And hence it is, that in reckoning up the sacraments of



the Old Testament, divines are not agreed; for some take the term in a larger extent, and others in a more restricted sense. We are not inclined to confine ourselves within too narrow bounds : but shall freely and calmly consider, according to our capacity, what has any relation to a facrament, in every period of time.

III. Some would have the first facrament of the covenant of grace to be the ejection of man out of paradise, and blocking up his access to the tree of life, least he should put forth his hand and eat of it, thinking that he should thereby obtain eternal life. For man being deprived of this sarcrament of works, was at the same time, given to know, that righteousness was to be sought for from another covenant; and thus he was led by the hand from the covenant of works to the covenant of


But we cannot be satisfied with these things. ist, Because man's ejection out of paradise, and exclusion from the tree of life were the effects of the divine wrath and vengeance against his sin, as appears from that truly holy, but stinging irony; behold the inan is become as one of us. But the institution of a facrament is an act of the highest goodness and mercy. We deny not, that man was already received into favour, and had the hopes of eternal life: nevertheleis, some things were inflicted upon him because of his transgression, that he might, by his loss, experience the direful nature of sin, and God's hatred of it. Among these was this ignominious ejection out of paradise. It was an instance of grace and favour, that God placed him in paradise immediately upon his creation, but of wrath, that he turned him out, when he had sinned. . 2dly, This ejection doubtless declared, that man could not now obtain salvation by the covenant of works, and that he, who was deprived of the thing signified, was unworthy to ule and enjoy the fign; and that it was in vain, and to no purpose, for him to please himself with the thoughts of it. But it by no means thewed, that there was another covenant, by which righteousness could either be fought for, or obtained. Adam was to know, and he did know this elsewhere. 3dly, Every thing, upon the supposition of the promise of the covenant of grace, that, by convincing man of his own impotency, leads him to that covenant, is not to be esteemed a facrament of it. For then every demonstration of God's wrath from heaven against sinners, and every fign, which is proper to give us an intimation of the curse of the covenant of works, in a word, every chastisement, as all these are appointed to bring the elect to Christ, should be called facraments of the covenant

of grace.

IV. According to my judgment, the learned have much


more probably ranged them in this manner : that God first of all dealt with fallen Adam about sacraments; that is, when the aprons of fig-leaves, which man sewed together, were not at all fufficient to cover the shame of his nakedness, he himself clothed Adam and his wife with coats of skins, Gen. iii. 21.

And it is very probable; these were the ikins of those beasts, which were flain for facrifices. But it is a vain controversy, which some make about the matter of those garments: since the Hebrew word niv is never used in scripture to fignify any thing, but the outward skin of animals. And as this is the most limple and plain, so it is the most ancient kind of clothing. See Job xxxi. 20. Prov. xxvii. 26. Hence the ancient heroes among the Greeks were clothed with the skins of a wild boar, or a tyger, or a lion, or the skin of the Lybean bear, or the skin worn by the Bacche or female priests of Bacchus, which was that of a fox. And who now is ignorant, that the progenitors of the Romans were clothed with skins, and were of a rude disposition of mind. See Voffius, de Idololatria. lib. 3. chap. 70. It is a curious observation of Mr. Cloppenburg Schola Sacrificiorum, 6. 12. Here we may see the original of that law in Lev. vii. 8. by which the skin of any man's burnt offering is appropriated to the priest, who offers it. And who will deny, that God's clothing our first parents was a symbolical act ? Do not Christ's own words very clearly allude to this? Rev. iii. 18. “ I counsel thee to buy of me white raiment, that thou mayest be clothed, and that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear.” Compare Joh. Henrici Urfini Annalecta, lib. 6. chap. 5.

V. The mystical fimilitude of these things is this.. ist, As that clothing, which man contrived for himself, could not cover him, so as to appear before the eyes of God. In like manner, nothing that a finner can work or toil by his own induftry, or wisdom fallely so called, can produce any thing that can procure him a jult and well grounded confidence, by which he may appear before the tribunal of God. « Their webs, which are spiders webs, shall not become garments, neither friall they cover themselves with their works,” Isa. lix, 5, 6. 2dly, Proper garments for men, were the gift of God's mercy, and so that righteoutnets, by which our fins are covered, is of God, Phil. iii. 9. contrived by God, perfected by Christ, who is God, and applied to us by the Spirit of God through faith. 3dly, The bodies of our first parents were covered with the spoils of mortality and the skins of flain animals. The garment of grace, whereby the body of fin is covered, is owing to the very death of Christ; without which VOL. II. Gg


that righteousness; which makes us acceptable to God, could not have been performed. Athly, That simple clothing of the first man was, in its appointed time, to be changed for one more convenient and fine. And this garment, which we have from God, while we are under the cross and partakers of the death of Christ, and which in external appearance is mean and despicable, shall afterwards be changed. For since we shall be partakers of Christ's resurrection, no longer in hope, but in reality; so the garment, which now appears to be mean and contemptible, Thall be then most neat and beautiful, and worthy to be accounted the nuptial robe. See Peter Martyr and Musculus.

VI. The other sarcament of that first period, were the facrifices which were slain at God's command, after the very

first promulgation of the covenant of grace, as appears. ift, Because “ Abel offered by faith," Heb. xi. 4. That is, he knew that himself and his sacrifice were acceptable to God, and in his offering he looked by faith to the future offering of the Messiah. But such a faith plainly presupposes the divine inftitution of sacrifices, and a revelation about thếir signification. 2dly, Because God gave that testimony to the sacrifices of the ancient patriarchs, whereby he declared they were acceptable to him, ibid. But, in the matters of religion, nothing pleases him, but what himself has commanded. All will-worship is condemned, Col. ii. 23. 3dly, Because there was a distinction between clean and unclean animals before the deluge, which was not from nature, but from the mere good pleasure of God, and has a particular respect to facrifices. And it is probable, that this was the case of every kind of sacrifices, even of those that were of a propitiatory nature, by which the promises of the cove. nant of grace were more clearly and distinctly ratified, than by all the others. For, while Mofes shews, that the patriarchs offered such facrifices, as he himself offered, and that they were adapted to fignify the same things, it is not for us to restrict, what is faid in general, to certain particular kinds, in exclusion of others.. Certainly Job offered burnt offerings for the fins of his children and friends, Job i. 6. and Job xlii. 8. which doubtless were propitiatory.

VII. But these facrifices were seals of God's covenant. For, though there is a difference between facrifices and facraments formally considered; because sacraments are given by God to men, but sacrifices are offered by men to God: nevertheless, there is no reason, why the confideration of sacrament and facrifice may not, in different respects, concur in one and the fame thing. For, even facrifices are given by God to men, that

is, are instituted by divine authority; that, by these ceremonies, the coming of the Son of God in the flesh, and his bloody death, and the remifsion of sins thereby, might be signified and sealed. And believers, in the use of thein, declared for that worship and veneration, that is due to God. Augustin, de Civit. Dei, lib. 10. C. 5. says, « the visible sacrifice is a sacrament, that is, a sacred sign of an invisible sacrifice.” To make this more evident, let us distinctiy consider. I. The priest offering. II. The animal offered. III. The ceremony of offering. IV. The empyrism, or burning it by fire from heaven. V. The expiation, which is the consequent of the facrifice. VI. The sacred feast, annexed to sacrifices.

VIII. The priests were in a manner, typical sureties, in so far as they approached to God in the name of the people; being “ ordained for men in things pertaining to God," Heb. v. 1. And they became fureties, when ever thy took upon them to offer facrifices for fin. For, by that offering, they performed what God, at that time, required for the expiation of sins. Lev.i. iv. and Lev. iv. 26, &c. and Lev. xvi. 34. And thus believers were assured, that Christ is the surety of an eternal tela tament; who, immediately, on man's first fin, undertook to fulfil the whole will of God, at the appointed time, and to offer à facrifice, which should be the cause nọt of a typical, as formerly, but of a true and saving expiation. By which will of God and of Chrift we are sanctified, Heb. x. 10,

IX. In the animal, which is offered, we should consider, ift, That it was to be clean, without spot or blemish: that it might fignify that most unspotted purity of Christ, “as of a lamb without blemish and without spot;" 1 Pet. i. 19. 2dly, That it was to be fuch, as was given to man for food, by the use of which food, man continues to be what he is. And therefore such an animal might be substituted for man himself, and, in the typical fignification, be a sponser, partaking of the same flesh and blood with us. 3dly, That it was to be such, as, men sét a great value upon : “ The goats are the price of the field,” Prov. xxvii. 26. Of old, focks and herds were the only or principal riches. Accordingly Columella, in prefat. lib. 7. conjectures, that the names pecunia, (money) and peculiam (private property) seem to be derived from pecus (a beast), which not only the ancients possessed, but are, at this day among fome nations, reputed the only kind of riches. By this was represented, that Christ was to be offered for men; and as he is the choice and beloved of his father, and his blood infinitely more precious than gold and filver; so he should also be most precious to us, who believe. i Pet. ii. 4, 6, 7. 4thly, That it be an animal, dumb

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