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might; for there is no work nor device, nor knowledge, nor wifdom in the grave, whither thou goest," Ecclef. ix. 10. We are far from thinking, that this here was the first inftitution of the fabbath, but rather that it was a folemn renovation of what was instituted from the beginning of the world, but had been interrupted by the bondage in Egypt, and a confir mation of it by the miracle of the manna. For Mofes, ver. 3. speaks of the fabbath, as a thing formerly known by the IIraelites, "this is that which Jehovah hath faid, to-morrow is the rest of the holy fabbath unto Jehovah, &c." We are not ignorant of what the great Selden, de jure nat. and Gent. &c. lib. 3. c. 9. feq. has largely, and learnedly indeed, opposed this; but it is not of that weight, as to fway with us.
XLV. Fifthly, and laftly, God commanded an homer of manna to be laid up in a golden urn or pot, for a perpetual memorial thereof, and placed before his face through all the generations of Ifrael. Aaron did this accordingly; namely, at the due time, when the tabernacle, and ark were reared up. For these things are related here; by an evident prolepfis or anticipation, on occafion of this hiftory, ver. 33. though as is very plain, it was not done till afterwards. God, indeed, would not have the memory of fo great a miracle die away from among the Ifraelites: and therefore he not only took care to have these prodigies recorded; but the remains of the miracle, great beyond all exception, and adapted to ftrike every one with amazement, to furvive. Nevertheless, to prevent their being made an occafion of fuperftition or idolatry, wifely ordered them to be laid up in the moft holy place, and removed from the use of the common people.
XLVI. We must here, by the way, remove an apparent contradiction. Mofes fays, Exod. xvi. 34. that a pot with manna, agreeably to the divine command, was by Aaron laid up before the teftimony to be kept. But the teftimony is either the ark, fo called, because the teftimonial tables of the covenant were laid up in it, or the tables themselves that were in the ark: but Paul writes, Heb. ix. 4. " in which (the ark) was the golden pot, that had manna, and Aaron's rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant:" where he places the pot with the manna in the ark, as well as the tables of the covenant. This difficulty is fo much the greater, if we compare 1 Kings viii. 9. and 2 Chron. v. 10. where it is expressly faid, that there was nothing in the ark, but the two tables of the law. Many things have been ingeniously devised by the learned, to take off this apparent contradiction. I own, I am best pleased with the obfervation of Drufius on Exod. xvi. 34. that the particle in with the Heb
rews, and those that adopt their way of speaking, fometimes denotes, at, near, by. To prove this he quotes Joth. x. 11. and Judges xviii. 12. Another learned author has very properly added Josh. v. 13. 1 Kings xvii. 3. Jer. xiii. 5. Col. iii. 1. And therefore, in which, here denotes, at or near the ark. Yet Drufius himself starts a difficulty, which he owns he is not able to remove. "Every thing would anfwer well," fays, he, "unless there followed, the tables of the covenant; for these were within the ark. But that the prepofition in fhould fignify two different things in the fame place, is not very probable: take care therefore, how you believe this." But we are not so soon to lose heart. We have at least found this, that in fometimes denotes fuch a latitude of place, that it even comprehends thofe things which are near and by. Moreover the ark was so framed, that fome things might be placed on the fides of it without, as appears in the cafe of the volume of the law written by Mofes, which was placed " in the fide of the ark of the covenant of the Lord," Deut. xxxi. 26. All the things therefore mentioned by Paul were in the ark, that is, within the compass of the ark, though fome of them were within it more than others. Nor could Paul fpeak lefs properly thus, than we do, when, for instance, we say, in the human body there are skin, and flesh, and bones and bowels: where in is used in the fame fense, and yet with fome latitude.
XLVII. There are three fins of the Ifraelites recorded with refpect to the manna. Ift, That feveral of them, contrary to the exprefs command of God, referved fome of it for the morrow, Exod. xvi. 20. With fuch infolence does the wifdom of the flesh fet itself in direct oppofition to God, though, by his aftonishing goodnefs, he renders himself amiable, and at the fame time venerable. And this obftinacy of corrupt nature, is not to be fubdued by any miracles. But what was referved, began to fwarm with worms, and was putrified. To teach us, that whatever is unjuftly and covetoufly referved, contrary to the command of God, ftinks before God and men; and hence worms arise, that is, various kinds of evils, especially the worm of confcience: whereas, on the contrary, what was re ferved against the future fabbath, proved permanent and incorruptible, Mat. vi. 20. 1. Tim. vi. 19. 2dly, That they went forth on the very fabbath to feek for it: however then they found nothing, ver. 27. God justly frustrates the defires of thofe, and renders their labours abortive, who undertake any thing contrary to his command. Nor have fuch any reafon to expect the divine bleffing on their labours, who, on the day of the Lord's reft, are employed in things that regard their own fubfiftence, while they omit the worthip of God, Ifa. lviii. VOL. II. Qq.
13, 14. 3dly, That at last they loathed and difdained the manna, though it was the sweetest and most wholesome of all food, especially in comparison of the cucumbers, the melons, the leeks, the onions, and the garlick, Num. xi. 5, 6. Thus men usually prefer the carnal refuse of this world, to the treasures of heaven, the husks of the earth, to the dainties of angels. And that nothing on this earth, is fo delightful, but that one time or other it begets a loathing: even the most excellent gifts of God, natural as well as fpiritual, on account of this perversenefs of our minds through custom, lofe their value in our esteem.
XLVIII. Now let us confider the mystery of the manna; Paul teacheth us, that this food was facramental, 1 Cor. x. 3. where he calls it fpiritual meat: but it was fo, not in its own nature, for it was appointed for the fupport of the animal life, but in fignification, wherein it answers to our mystical supper. Anguftin on Pfal. lxxvii. 1. fays, "it was fpiritual, that is, it fignified fomething fpiritual." And Chrift declares, John. vi. 32. himself was that true bread, which came down from heaven and was prefigured by the manna. The Jews however blind, promise to themselves a new manna by the Meffiah. For thus in "Midras Cohelet, fol. 86. col. 4. the first redeemer caused the manna to defcend, fo alfo the latter redeemer will make the manna to defcend: as it is written, and there shall be an handful of corn in the earth,” Pf. lxxii. 16. Though their expectations were really carnal and corrupt, yet they are the remains of ancient and fpiritual inftruction. So likewife in "Midras Canticl, fol. 16. c. 4. "The laft redeemer fhall be revealed to them. And whither will he lead them? fome fay, to the wildernefs of Judah; others, to the wildernefs of Sihon and Og, and he will caufe the manna to defcend to them." But it is to be obferved, that Chrift frequently fed the multitude in the deferts of Judea, and in the wilderness of Og, with the food of his word, which is more excellent than any manna: and when there was occafion for it, ftayed the hunger of the body with bread, which he multiplied no lefs miraculously; than the manna formerly was. See other teftimonies of the Jews in Viega on Rev. ii. 17. But according to the method prefcribed, let us come to particulars.
XLIX. Manna denotes that food, which was appointed, prepared by God, and given to the Ifraelites for their portion, in order to the fupport of life. So Chrift is the gift of God, John iv. 10. That excellent gift foreordained by God, 1 Pet. i. 20. and by his unfpeakable goodness beftowed on the true Ifrael, for their portion, Pet. x. 16. by which they should live thus Jefus himself declares, John vi. 51. "I am the living bread, which came down from heaven: If any man eat of this bread, he fhall live
for ever."The manna was given to the Ifraelites, when they were least concerned about the bleffings of God, and put a greater value on the good things of Egypt, and had again. tempted God. Chrift came into the world, when it was most corrupted, and offered his spiritual bleffings, at a time, when the very best could fcarce afcend above earthly and carnal things.
-Ifrael did not know the manna, when it was first given, though promised by Mofes. Though Christ was so often promised by Mofes and all the holy prophets, and described to the life, yet when he came into the world, the world knew him not, John i. 10.
L. Though the origin of the manna was from heaven, yet the vapours or exhalations, from which it was congealed together, were raised from the earth by the efficacy of the fun. Christ several times repeats it, that he came down from heaven, to give life to the world, John vi. He, who is the "dayfpring from on high," Luke i. 78. is alfo the "fruit of the earth," Ifa. iv. 2. We have already obferved, that angels were employed about the defcending manna. A great multitude of the heavenly hoft, fung the birth-day fong, when Chrift first came into the world, Luke ii. 13.Mofes, indeed, could not give the manna, yet he promised it, and explained the nature of it. So neither was he the author of true salvation, but teftified of Chrift, and taught that the life of the foul confifts in communion with him, John v. 46.
LI. The manna was, in its form and figure, small and minute, promifing nothing great at firft fight: thus alfo Chrift, when he was seen only with the eyes of flesh, had neither form no comeliness, that we fhould defire him, Ifa. liii. 2.—Yet the white colour of the manna, and ufually that of pearls too, represented the moft excellent purity of the Lord Jefus, and the glory of the divine majefty shining forth in the affumed form of a fervant.-The tafte of the manna, that was fo very fweet, like honey, and the most excellent oil, fignifies the unspeakable delights of that grace, we obtain by Chrift, whofe sweetness. none understand but they who tafte it, Pfal. xxxiv. 8.-In order to be a more proper food for Ifrael, it was ground in mills, or pounded with pestles, or baked in pans, Numb. xi. 8. Chrift was alfo prepared by various sufferings, that he might be most sweet and wholesome food to our foul.
LII. The manna was rained down in the wildernefs: and Christ came into the world, and to the people of Ifrael, when, like a wilderness, it was overgrown with thistles, and thorns, and most barren of good fruit: and by his coming "comforted all the wafte places of Zion, and made her wilderness like Eden,
and her defart like the garden of Jehovah," Ifa. li. 3.————It was then, that the Ifraelites obtained the manna, when all that they had brought out of Egypt, was spent, and they saw they muft inevitably perifh, by famine, unless they were relieved by the unexpected favour of heaven. Chrift beftows his grace only on those, who fenfible of their want, and rejecting every worldly comfort, choose to owe their falvation to him alone, Luke i. 53. "he filled the hungry with good things, and fent the rich empty away.- -Nor can any one hope for the confolations of divine grace, unlefs they firft quit the Egypt of this world, and the prison of fin, and paffing through the Red Sea of forrowful repentance, he gives himfelf up to be led and directed by the Holy Spirit, in the way to the heavenly Canaan, Ifa. xxxii. 16, 17.
LIII. The manna came down every day, and when ever the morning dawned, prefented itself fresh to the Ifraelites. Thus alfo the grace and tender mercies of the Lord are new every morning, Lam. iii. 23.-Yet this bread was in fuch manner given for fix days, as none of it was to be feen on the feventh. This feems to fignify, that Chrift would in his appointed time appear among the Ifraelites, and converfe daily with them; but afterwards would neither be feen, nor fought for, any where on earth, nor be imagined, to be either in this or in the other place. But because that day was the seventh of the week, this fet forth, he fhould cease to be seen by men on the seventh; but on the first day of the week, when he returned from the grave, he would prefent himself to the view of his people almoft as early as the fun. When the Ifraelites were come into Canaan, the manna ceafed; every thing which regards. the state of the church, wandering in the wilderness of this world, confequently every healing grace, and every thing, which flows to us from Chrift, as mediator, and fuppofes any defect, fhall ceafe after the last day, when God himself fhall be all in all to his church, when introduced into the heavenly country, 1 Cor. xv. 28.
LIV. The manna was not bestowed on the Ifraelites, as the effect of their fowing or culture, or of any human induftry: but by the gratuitous gift of the divine goodness and bounty alone: the only thing required of them, was to receive, to gather and make use of that gift of God. Thus in like manner the life and falvation, we have in Chrift the Lord, " is not of him that willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God that fheweth mercy," Rom. ix. 16. And his grace is "as a dew from Jehovah, as the fhowers upon the grafs, that tarrieth not man, nor waiteth for the fons of men," Mic. v. 7. It is however