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Thus the ministry of Christ amongst His people places itself already in a distinct contrast to the pharisaical modes of thinking

a which had penetrated the minds of the people. This occasions Him now to exhibit the doctrine of the kingdom of God to the multitudes, who flocked around Him, in the form of parables.

When much people were gathered together, and were come to Him out of every city, He spake by a parable: “A sower went out to sow his seed: and as he sowed, some fell by the wayside; and it was trodden down, and the fowls of the air devoured it. And some fell upon a rock; and as soon as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked moisture. And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang up and choked it. And other fell on good ground, and sprang up, and bare fruit an hundred-fold.'

When He had said these things, He cried, 'He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.'

His disciples asked Him what this parable might mean. And He said, “Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God, but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand. Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God. Those by the way-side are they that hear (only); then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe and be saved. Those on the rock are they who, when they (have scarce begun to) hear, receive the word with joy. These have no root; they believe for a time—while it is favourable,—but in time of temptation fall away. And that which fell among thorns are they who, having heard the word, and gone forth amid the cares and riches and pleasures of life, are choked, and bring no fruit to perfection. But that on the good ground are they who, having heard the word, keep it in an honest and good heart, and bring forth fruit with patience.'

That, however, the disciples might not suppose Jesus meant to teach an esoteric doctrine, and found a school, not a church, He continued: “No man, when he hath lighted a candle, covereth it with a vessel or putteth it under a bed, but setteth it on a candlestick, that they who enter in may see its shining. For nothing is secret that shall not be made manifest, neither anything hid that shall not be known and come abroad. Take heed, therefore, how ye hear. For whosoever hath, to him shall be given ;


and whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken that which in appearance-outwardly, but not really—he hath.'

How assured He was of a kernel of susceptible hearts amongst His audience—of a good ground to receive the seed of the kingdom-is shown by the declaration, in which He designates His true hearers as His family in the highest and most peculiar sense of the term. There came to Him His mother and His brethren, and could not come at Him for the press. And it was told Him, Thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to see thee. And He answered and said unto them, ‘My mother and My brethren are these which hear the word of God, and do it.'


1. According to the arrangement of Matthew, which deserves the preference, as it is founded on the conception of a distinct development in the ministry of Christ, the journey to Gadara, which Luke makes to succeed the journey here described, through the cities and villages, took place before it. Besides this, it is to be inferred, on geographical grounds, that the narrative of the woman who was a sinner preceded the raising to life of the young man at Nain. See the order of events, vol. iii. 90.

2. The narratives of the raising of the widow's son and of the grace shown to the woman, both bear, as has been noticed, the stamp of the Evangelist Luke. The omission of them by the other Evangelists may be accounted for by the circumstance, that the apostles had not been on these occasions present as witnesses.? Chap. vii. 21 serves to throw light on what follows. This is true also of vers. 29 and 30. In ver. 21 is to be noted the expression έχαρίσατο το βλέπειν. Very significant is the clause, ver. 25, oi év imatlouộ, etc., ÚTrápxovtes. The expression ėdukaiwoav tòv eóv, ver. 29, helps to explain the difficult ėdcκαιώθη η σοφία. Ver. 34, Luke has the direct και λέγετε instead of kai Néyovoi in Matthew. The information concerning the

και λέγουσι . women who accompanied Jesus, chap. viii. 1, etc., is also peculiar to Luke. Chap. viii. 5, he has the additional word, his seed. Likewise the remark, That which fell by the way-side

1 Schleiermacher (pp. 104 and 105) explains this fact in the most artificial manner.


was trodden down. Ver. 6, upon a rock, instead of, on stony ground. Ver. 10, the Evangelist has, along with Mark, the stronger ivaiva BNÉTTOVTES, etc., instead of őtı in Matthew. The additional clause, iva un TUOTEVOavtes, ver. 12, he has alone. Peculiar to him is the expression, οι πρός καιρόν πιστεύουσιν, ver. 13. In general, the Evangelist expresses himself in the last paragraphs more briefly than Matthew and Mark.

3. Even Schleiermacher is of opinion that the narrative of the woman is identical with the anointing at Bethany: see above, iii. 92. In connection with the subject, he says (p. 112), ' And in like manner, it by no means follows from the words of Christ, that the woman was a sinner in the common sense of the term ; for Jesus says only, that her act springs from the fulness of true reverential attachment.' The whole reasoning belongs to the sophistical element in the criticism of Schleiermacher, which, as a fruitful germ, has become, in the hands of less able and less noble spirits, a great rankling weed of uncritical criticism.

4. Gfrörer, who has on this paragraph much that is extravagant (e.g., he wishes, instead of edukaubon ý oopia, because he did not understand the expression, to read noethon), is of opinion, that the connection between vii. 36-50 and the preceding part consists only, in this, that Jesus here effects (?) the eating and drinking with sinners, which had there been spoken of (175). Ebrard, on the contrary, thinks that the connection lies in the contrast, which the faith of the woman presented, to the sad example furnished by the mighty prophet' (p. 104). The history of the woman serves indeed for the confirmation of the declaration, ver. 35, and of the words, ver. 29, and especially also ver. 30. The author of the book Die Evang., etc., finds in the designation of the Pharisee by the mame Simon, a spiteful reference to Peter. He is even disposed to find something satirical in the expression, ' Some fell upon a rock, nrétpa.'




(Chap. viii. 22-ix. 6.)


The third journey of Christ is considered by the Evangelist himself as an appendage to the second, or even as an episode in it. Therefore he says, on one of those days it began.

The question now arises, from what point of view did Luke regard the miracles of this journey as a third series, as higher manifestations of the power of Jesus, surpassing those of the second? The first act of the second series is a restoration from the dead; the second act of the third series is the healing of the demoniac at Gadara. Now it is here manifest, that the first miracle is greater than the last. It appears, therefore, at first sight, as if the transposition made by the Evangelist had no object; at least, not that of presenting the miracles in such an order, that a continuous gradation should be discernible. If, however, we look more closely, we shall find that the facts of this series possess in common, special, well-defined, characteristic features, which, in a certain sense, stamp them as miracles of the highest grade.

The first consists in this, that in all these cases, Jesus has not to do with the pure manifestation of any particular affliction, but with sufferings which (with the exception of the healing of the woman with an issue of blood, which does not here occupy a place of first importance) assumed the character of commotion. The second is, that He performs these miracles amidst great moral hindrances and obstructions.

The first miracle is the stilling of the storm. Jesus embarked in a ship with His disciples, and commanded them to pass over to the other side of the lake. During the voyage He fell asleep.


Meanwhile, there came down a storm of wind on the lake, the waves broke over the ship, and they were in jeopardy. The disciples helplessly left their work, hastened to Jesus, and awoke Him with the words, “ Master, Master, we perish!' Then He arose, and rebuked the wind and the raging of the water; and they were silenced. The wind and the sea were still. On this

. He reproved His disciples, saying unto them, “Where is your faith ?' But they, filled with wonder and fear, said one to another, What manner of man is this? for He commandeth even the winds and water, and they obey Him !?

The greatness of this miracle did not alone consist in this, that He suddenly silenced the commotion of nature; but also in this, that He silenced it, notwithstanding the great obstruction offered to Him in the despondency of His disciples. We know of what significance for His miraculous agency was the faith of those who sought His help. Even here, certainly, this faith was not

. altogether awanting: the disciples took refuge in Him. But they were wanting, nevertheless, in the proper composure and confidence of faith. The Lord had to contend at once with the commotion of nature and with the commotion in their hearts. He accomplished the miracle against a counteracting frame of mind in those who stood by Him and needed His help. In spite of the powerful reaction, caused by the excitement in the hearts of all the disciples, He accomplished the miracle, in the faithfulness of His own heart, altogether alone. This miracle is nothing less than the deliverance of the seed of His Church—of the Church itself in her germ.

The same special features are possessed by the history of the second miracle. They now sailed across to the country of the Gadarenes. Immediately on His landing, there met Him out of the city a man who had been possessed with devils for a long time,-a man who endured no clothing on his body, who would not dwell in any house, but in the tombs. When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell down before Him, and with a loud voice said, What have I to do with Thee, Jesus, Thou Son of God most high ? I beseech Thee, torment me not. These utterances attest the complete inward contradiction into which the sufferer had been thrown by the Lord. For He had already commanded the unclean 'spirit to come out of him ;-instigated thereto by compassion, the Evangelist seems further to hint-for the evil



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