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Mark. His description of the celebration of the Passover has much in it which is peculiar. First, the mention of the beautiful words of Jesus: I have longed exceedingly to eat this Passover with
you, before that I suffer (éridurią émeðúunoa, etc.). Then, the significant word regarding the fulfilment (transformation) of the paschal feast in the kingdom of heaven; in which certainly the abrogation of the ancient Passover is announced, as the Saxon Anonyme remarks. Also, the mention of the first cup, in pledge of the coming of the kingdom, which preceded the holy Supper. Further, in the dispensing of the consecrated bread, he has the addition, το υπέρ υμών δεδόμενον τούτο ποιείτε εις την εμήν ανάμνησιν ; and in the dispensing of the cup,
peculiar form of words : τούτο το ποτήριον ή καινή διαθήκη εν τω αίματί μου, το υπέρ υμών εκχυνόμενον:-both in free but not quite literal correspondence with the Pauline tradition, 1 Cor. xi. 23–25. Also the position assigned to the conversation regarding the traitor after the celebration of the Supper, as likewise the description in this place of the dispute among the disciples which of them should be the greatest, are peculiar to this Evangelist. In like manner also, the promise of Jesus, vers. 28–38. Single elements of these passages are found, Matt. xx. 25, chap. xix. 28. The 27th verse shows, that this dispute about their respective dignities refers to the feet-washing, John xiii. 5. The conversation of the Lord with Peter, which prefaces the announcement of his denial of Him, is given by Luke alone; also the injunction to the disciples to accoutre themselves, and the fact that they bring out two swords. It is not to be denied, that in this description the disciples appear in all their weakness ; especially in the dispute after the Supper, az also in their producing two swords. How little, however, this was intended to
depreciate the authority of the twelve Apostles, is shown by the · weighty words of the Lord, in which He recognises the previous
fidelity of the disciples, and imparts to them the greatest promises? (vers. 28 et seq.). It is also here again worthy of remark, how carefully the Evangelist Luke has collected the references to the prophecies of the Old Testament in regard to the sufferings of Christ, vers. 37 and 38.
* Which the Saxon Anonyme is disposed to interpret ironically.
THE PASSION OF JESUS.
(Chap. xxii. 39-xxiii.)
After the institution of the Supper, Jesus went out to the Mount of Olives. And His disciples also followed Him-although He had already announced to them that Satan would sift them as wheat, and although it had already been made sufficiently manifest that they were but poorly furnished with spiritual weapons to meet his assaults. When He was arrived at the place whither He would go, He laid the injunction upon His disciples, “Pray, that ye enter not into temptation. He then withdrew from them about a stone's cast, kneeled down, and prayed: “Father, if Thou be willing to cause this cup to pass from Me -- yet not My will," but Thine, be done.' And there
appeared unto Him an angel from heaven, and strengthened Him. And being in an agony, He prayed the more earnestly: and His sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground.? And rising up from prayer, He came to His disciples, and found them sleeping for sorrow, and said unto them, “Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation.'
The conflict of Jesus appears here as a mighty struggle, increasing more and more in violence, even to mortal anguish, in which He is strengthened by an angel from heaven, and in which, by the utmost earnestness of wrestling prayer, He obtains the victory, whilst in His body signs of the greatest agitation and exhaustion manifest themselves. His prayer is here made in the gentlest expression of a wish cut short. His will is described as a mere willing. All the disciples appear, without an exception, sleepers. They form, indeed, a melancholy contrast to their watching Master, who in mortal anguish
1 θέλημα, not θέλησις.-θέλημα is the natural willing, which proceeds from the natural ebullition of life (évépyerce), the substantial will; Béa nous, on the contrary, is the will as an act, the moral self-determination. These distinctions are indispensable to a right estimate of the monotheletic question.
2 See above, vol. iv. p. 269.
wrestles in prayer, until His sweat becomes as blood; and to the angel of God, who comes from the high heavens to strengthen Him, whilst they, in His immediate neighbourhood, have so little sympathy for His sorrow.
While the Lord at the close of His conflict was again calling upon His disciples to pray, that they might not enter into temptation,' behold, a multitude; and the man named Judas, one of the Twelve, went before them. He drew near unto Jesus to kiss Him—in this manner to salute Him. But Jesus said unto him, “Judas, dost thou betray the Son of man with a kiss?' Whilst, however, this disciple betrayed Him, the disciples also around Him, although with good intentions, brought Him under serious suspicion. When they saw what would follow, they said unto Him, "Lord, shall we smite with the sword ?' And one of them struck at a servant of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. But Jesus said—to the watch—Allow Me only so long.' And He touched his ear, and healed him.
The kiss which Judas offered to the Lord is described by Luke as only intended. The fault of the other disciples appears in immediate juxtaposition with the crime of Judas, the pointed description of which is contained in the words, ‘Betrayest thou the Son of man with a kiss ?'3 The wound inflicted on the servant of the high priest is reported with more exactness than in the other synoptists. It is not only quite characteristic of the Gospel of humanity that Christ miraculously heals the wound of the servant, but also that He does it with this word addressed to His enemies : “Allow Me only so long !allow Me only to be so long free, until I have shown you
this last service of love ;-and further, that at such a moment He can place Himself in this frame of mind, and with this manifestation of power, between His friends and His enemies, and take the part of the enemies who are injured, against the friends who injure them.
1 'Εγείρεσθε άγωμεν in Matthew and Mark.
2 Which does not contradict the ratsdianosy of the two other synoptists. See iv. 293.
3 Whilst Matthew has it, Friend, wherefore art thou come?
4 To ous tó oszlóv, according to Luke, is cut off ; according to the first Gospel, το ώτίον.
5 See above, vol. i. p. 265; and vol. iv. p. 297.
The Lord then rebuked His enemies in His own manner, with a word of protestation addressed to the chief priests, captains of the temple-watch, and elders, who had come in the company: • As against a robber, are ye come out with swords and with staves ? I was with you daily in the temple, and ye did not even stretch out your hands against Me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness—that is, your hour is midnight, the hour of robbers, and ye obtain your power in the darkness—which is a symbol of the power of darkness, by which ye are ruled.'!
They, however, took Him prisoner, without heeding this word of rebuke from His mouth, led Him away, and brought
, Him into the house of the high priest. The house of the high priest was therefore the place in which Christ must be condemned.
Peter followed afar off. And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them. As he there sat by the light of the fire, a maid saw him, and looking at him intently, she said, “This man was also with him. But he denied Him, and said, 'Woman, I know him not.' And after a little while, another saw him, and said, “Thou art also one of them.' And Peter said-in a tone of indignation,—Man, I am not.' And again, after the space of an hour, another protested and said, “Of a truth this man also was with him ; for he is a Galilean.' But Peter answered, Man, I know not (do not understand) what thou sayest. And immediately, while he yet spake, the cock crew. And the Lord turned, and looked on Peter. Then Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how He had said unto him, ' Before the cock crow, , thou shalt deny Me thrice.' And Peter went out, and wept bitterly.
One sees here how, in the falling Peter, the evil conscience gradually awakens. His agitation increases; the expression of denial becomes weaker. Then comes the alarming cry of the cock. But the look of Christ, which in this moment fixes itself upon him in rebuke and pity, completes the awakening of his sleeping heart to repentance. Only Luke tells us of this gracious look : he alone seeks psychologically to sketch a picture of the state of Peter's soul. And the men who held Jesus in custody mocked Him, and
i See above, vol. iv. pp. 200-1.
smote Him. They blindfolded Him, and struck Him on the face, and asked Him, saying, “Prophesy, who is it that smote thee ?' And many other things blasphemously spake they against Him.
The entire helplessness of the situation of Christ appears especially in the circumstance, that it was those who guarded Him that thus maltreated Him, and mocked at His prophetic dignity; and the more so, that the final judgment regarding Him
; was not yet pronounced.'
And as soon as it was day, the presbytery of the people—the body of the elders—and the chief priests, and the scribes, assembled together, led Him up into their council, and said, 'If thou art the Christ, tell us.' But He said unto them, 'If I tell you--simply testify and declare it-ye will not believe. And if I put questions to you—prove it to you controversially in the manner of Scripture discussion-ye will not answer Me, nor yet let Me go!
There remained only one other way, namely, to proclaim to them His victory over them, and their judgment; and this He now did in the words, "Henceforth shall the Son of man sit on the right hand of the power of God. Then said they all, “Thou art then the Son of God?' And He said unto them, “Ye say that I am.' And they said, “What need we any further witness the declaration of witnesses ?- We ourselves have heard it out of his own mouth. This was the last of the three examinations which Jesus underwent—the judicial and formal examination, in which the final judgment of the Jewish hierarchy was pronounced against Him.
On this the whole multitude of them arose, and led Him before Pilate. And they began to accuse Him, saying, “We have found this man perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, saying of himself, that he is Christ, a king. Pilate put to Him the question, “Art thou the king of the Jews ?' And He answered him, and said, “Thou sayest it.' Then said Pilate to the chief priests and to the people, “I find no fault in this man. But they expressed themselves still more strongly, and said, “He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, from Galilee, where he began, to this place. When Pilate heard speak of Galilee, he asked, “Is the man a Galilean ?' And when he learned that He belonged to i See above, vol. iv. 312–13.
? See above, vol. iv. 320.