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and, as His familiar and trusted One, He has announced eternal things—He has completed the work of revelation.

Thus the revelation of Christ presents itself first as eternal, prepared and introduced by the Old Covenant; and so far the Old Covenant may be regarded as the parturition of the New. On this very account, however, it presents itself only in its accomplishment as the real (substantial) revelation ; and in so far the Old Covenant stands in a distinct contrast to the New, as the type to the actual fulfilment. Since, however, in the glory of its completion it abolishes the temporary arrangements which preceded, it appears as the one revelation; and in so far the glory of the Old Covenant vanishes in the brightness of the New.





(Chap. i. 19-iv.)


In the first place, Christ was received and accredited by John the Baptist. The testimony of John was invested with the highest historical importance: it was the testimony of the Spirit of the Old Testament theocracy itself. And this testimony was very distinct, decided, and persistent. It was imparted to the whole nation; first to the fathers and leaders of the Jewish people, then to the disciples of John himself, and indirectly through them to the whole multitude.

And this is the record of John, writes the Evangelist. When the Jews of Jerusalem sent an embassy of priests and Levites to ask him, Who art thou ? he confessed, and denied not. His confession was, “I am not the Christ;' in which light, indeed, they would gladly have regarded him. Then asked they him, What then? art thou Elias?' And he said, 'I am not. Art thou the prophet?' He answered, No. They said unto him, Who art thou ? we must give an answer to them who have sent

What sayest thou of thyself?' He said, “I am the voice



of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias' (sl. 3). And they who were sent were of the Pharisees--strong in their theocratic sentiments. They therefore urged him further with the question, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not Christ, nor Elias, nor the prophet ?' John answered them, saying, 'I baptize with water; but there standeth already one among you, whom ye know not; He, who, coming after me, was before me, whose


, shoe's latchet I am not worthy to unloose.' The Evangelist adds significantly the words : These things were done at Bethabara, beyond the Jordan, where John was baptizing."

Thus did John confess his entirely subordinate position in reference to Christ, although the Pharisees seemed disposed, amongst all the titles, to concede a pre-eminent one to him; and

l thus he withstood the danger of denying the majesty, far surpassing his own pretensions, of the unknown One, who was indeed already in the midst of the people-primarily in the act of His baptism—but who had as yet acquired no name among them.

But before his disciples also did the Baptist confess the Lord. The next day he saw Jesus as He was coming towards him, and said, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sins of the world! This is He of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred (became) before me, for He was before me. And I knew Him not ; but that He should be made manifest in Israel, therefore am I come, baptizing with water.' And John bare record, saying, “I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon Him. I also knew Him not-hitherto ;-but He that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Him, He it is which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. And I have seen it, and have borne record, that this is the Son of God.'

Although John, as a pious Israelite, had previously known and honoured the person of Christ, he nevertheless did not yet


1 The indication of the locality suggests the thought, that the returning deputation might have sought for Christ, at that time making a sojourn in the wilderness.

2 Without doubt a reference to the testimony before given, to the deputation of the Sanhedrim.


know Him officially in His prophetic calling as the Messiah. To know Him in this character, he had to wait for the divine token, as described and announced to him. With this sign he received official certainty, and could publicly testify of Him. And now he directed the eyes of the deputies of the Sanhedrim to Him, not merely by declaring the arrival of the Messiah, but by designating Jesus as the Messiah who had appeared.

He did not rest satisfied, however, with a first or second testimony;

but he bore witness of Him ever anew, although by so doing he more and more lowered his own reputation. He had made his own disciples acquainted with the fact, that Jesus was the Messiah, and had thereby indicated that they had now to attach themselves to Him. But at the first intimation none of them had gone. He therefore immediately followed it by a second announcement on the next day. He stood again in his place, with two of his disciples. And resting his eyes on Jesus as He walked—still lingering in his vicinity, and perhaps going and coming, as He first sought companionship among the disciples of John? he said once more, Behold the Lamb of God! This time his word took effect. Two of his disciples heard him thus speak, and they followed Jesus.

From this moment were drawn together, in quick succession, the primary elements and noblest kernel of the discipleship of Jesus from among the disciples of John. We thus see, that the most select pupils of the last Old Testament prophet, the best of the disciples of John, receive Him.

As those two followed after Him, Jesus turned round; and seeing them coming, He said unto them, “What seek ye? ?' They said unto Him, “Rabbi (which is, being interpreted, Master), where dwellest Thou (where hast Thou thy lodging today)?' He said unto them, Come and see! They came and saw where He lodged, and remained with Him that day. It was about the tenth hour—about four o'clock in the afternoonthat they came unto Him. One of the two who heard John speak, and followed Him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. The Evangelist does not name the other, although he manifestly knows both well; and by this he indicates that he himself was that second disciple. He first (Andrew), continues the narra

" See above, ii. 283. ? The proof that the author of the fourth Gospel meant to indicate


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tive, finds his brother Simon,—whom, therefore, both had gone out to seek,—and saith unto him, “We have found the Messiah (which is, being interpreted, Christ). And he brought him to Jesus. Jesus looked on him, and said, “Thou art Simon, the son of Jona—the dove, which nestles in the rock :-thou shalt be called Cephas' (which is, by interpretation, a rock—the rocky abode of the dove. See above, ii. 284).

The day following Jesus would return unto Galilee. And He findeth Philip, and saith unto him, “Follow Me. Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, “We have found Him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. And Nathanael said unto him, • Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth ?' Philip saith unto him, Come and see!' Jesus saw Nathanael coming

“ to Him, and saith of him, Behold an Israelite indeed, in

6 whom is no guile!' Nathanael saith unto Him, “Whence knowest Thou me?' Jesus answered and said unto him, * Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the figtree, I saw thee.' Nathanael, in the feeling that Jesus had looked into his heart from afar in a sacred moment, answered in the words, “Rabbi, Thou art the Son of God, Thou art the King of Israel'—thus the King of the Israelite without guile, as Thou hast named me.

To this Jesus replied, “Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig-tree, believest thou? Thou shalt see greater things than these. And He saith unto him, “Verily, verily, I say unto you, From henceforth ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of man. As I have just now in secret seen into thy heart, ye shall henceforth see into the open heaven, into the depths of the revelation of God, and of the revelation of His Son-into the sanctuary of the mutual co-operation between the Son and the Father, in which the angels of prayer ascend, and the angels of miraculous power descend, perpetually.

So speedily did the Prince of light recognise elect souls, who had affinity with the light, and so speedily, on the other hand, did they recognise Him. The same recognition, however, which himself to be the Apostle John, has been given with great clearness by Bleek in the above-mentioned work (175 ff.).

Jesus in His public manifestation found among the more susceptible of John's disciples, He now also found in His native country, among His relatives and friends.

And on the third day (after receiving the attestation of John, see vol. ii. 291) there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee. And the mother of Jesus was there. But Jesus also, with His disciples-on His return—was invited to the marriage-feastwhich had already commenced some time before. And when they wanted wine (doubtless in consequence of the arrival of new guests), the mother of Jesus said unto Him, They have no wine.' Jesus said unto her, 'Woman, leave that to Me !1 Mine hour-herein to give counsel-is not yet come. His mother said unto the servants, “Whatsoever He saith unto you, do it.'—His word had thus appeared to her as a kindly intimation of help, in which He had only reserved to Himself the determination of the time.—And there were set there six water-pots of stone, according to the custom of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three measures apiece. Jesus saith unto them—the servants— Fill the water-pots with water.' And they filled them up to the brim. And He saith unto them, • Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast.' And they—had the faith to do so, and—bare it. But when the governor of the feast tasted the water that had been made wine (and he knew not whence it came, but the servants which had drawn the water knew), he called the bridegroom, and said unto him, ' Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when they have well drunk, then that which is inferior: but thou hast kept the good wine until now. This was the beginning of signs which Jesus accomplished in Cana of Galilee; and thus He manifested His glory. And His disciples believed on Him—they attained to a higher measure of faith in Him from their own observation, and were no longer, as before for the most part, dependent on the authority of John. After this, He went down to Capernaum, He, and His mother, and His brethren, and His disciples; but they continued there, at this time, not many days.

From a variety of indications we may here conclude, that

See vol. ii. 293. Perhaps this was a proverbial expression used by men towards women, in reference to the business and care which fall to the charge and responsibility of men.

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