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with which He comes across the sea to His own. And what wondrous, flying torches of light, does He make to fall amidst the conclaves of the darkness itself! Before the judgment-seat of the rulers at Jerusalem, He reveals Himself as one who exercises the highest and most valid jurisdiction in the name of the Father, calling the one to life, and giving over the other to death at His will; and the judges sit as a gallery of the speechless dead around the Prince of life. Here also He throws a beam of His light on the dead Scripture knowledge, the dead Bible reading of unbelievers, in its dismal soullessness, by a living exhibition of Holy Scripture in its christological meaning and fulness of life. Amidst the worldly Chiliasts of Galilee He unveils with a lightning flash of royal displeasure, of true spiritual dignity, the unworthiness of the seditious swarm who would gladly make Him a king, in order that they might live in sensual ease on His miraculous bread. In the company of His disciples He distinguishes the genuine followers, whom the Father hath given to Him, whose discipleship is rooted in the depths of the divine purpose, of whom each by himself has been led to Him by a special divine revelation, by a personal hearing of the voice of God, and thus is as one taught of God in the most individual sense, from the rootless party combinations of worldlyminded men, who, slavishly united by worthless interests, murmur among themselves, and cannot experience the drawing of the Father, because they all drag each other forward to destruction by their party feeling and worldly machinations. He even causes a bright flash of His eye to fall on the treachery which begins to spring up in the innermost circle of His disciples: we see with horror how the evil germinates, yet are calmed at the same time by a dim surmise that so it must be. Thus also the Lord sees in the worldly tendency, which still causes a jar in the hearts of His brethren towards Him, a judgment, according to which they must still for a time enjoy the peace of an affiliated world; and with sadness in His look, He dismisses them to the feast, where they would have liked to share with Him in worldly triumphs. Thus the culminating point of the ideal conception of life is reached; even the utterances of evil cannot disturb the counsel of God. They appear as sins on which judgment is already passed, but also as facts worked by the hand of God into the ideal course of actual life.

NOTES.

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1. The Evangelist gives us no communications regarding the journeyings of Jesus through Galilee, after His return from His somewhat prolonged residence in Judea. He passes immediately from the miracle, with which Jesus marked His second return homewards to Galilee in Cana, to His new appearance in Jerusalem at the feast of Purim, in the second year of His ministry. He thus omits all the particulars, in the first great stage of the labours of Jesus in Galilee, of which the Sermon on the Mount forms the centre (see Book ii. iv. 13). He then transplants us suddenly from the high council in Jerusalem to the Sea of Galilee, and across the sea into the desert, without informing us regarding the motives of this voyage. Again, after he has communicated the first great events which were associated with this journey, he just indicates (chap. vii. 1) the new labours of Jesus in Galilee, without touching the individual facts, as they are narrated by the synoptists (Book ii. Part v. 14 and 15), in order, after a few introductory words, to make us acquainted with another return of Jesus to Jerusalem, which took place on the occasion of the feast of Tabernacles. He thus passes over the time between the feast of Purim in the spring (in the month Adar, before the month of the Passover, Nisan) and the feast of Tabernacles in autumn (on this occasion beginning on 12th Oct.).

2. Stier (Words of the Lord, vol. v. 187) makes, on my interpretation of sixth chap. (vol. iii. 149), the remark : The good Lange, who has, alas ! to a considerable extent fallen a prey to the spiritualism of this dangerous time, speaks in a very strange way for a Christian of this'-of eating and drinking the blood of Christ. «« The world in general consumes Him, draws Him into its life of death, and thus His quickening flesh, which is entirely identical with the Spirit, the energetic and quickening power of His spiritual and corporeal being, imparts itself to the world and restores its life.” Not so! Of a consuming of Christ by the world in general, not a single word is said there, and such a thing is a horrendum dictu to one who has a Christian acquaintance with what the world and what Christ is. Therefore, also, only υπέρ της του κόσμου ζωής, not εις ζωήν: He who

consumes,” or better, feeds on Him, and is nourished by Him, is vers. 53-58, said, etc.' In this lively combating of my remark,

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Stier has overlooked the circumstance, that the 51st verse, which he quotes, points back to the 33d verse, where it stands : This is the bread of God, which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. In what manner now does bread give life? Without doubt, by its being eaten. If then this bread gives life to the world, this implies, that it is eaten by the world. Certainly by the world in general, as I intentionally remarked, by the world in the Johannean sense, so far as it still contains within itself the kernel of believers, and as such is the world loved by God. Of the world beyond the crisis, or the world of unbelievers, I thus manifestly do not speak. And that Stier speaks of it here, has no foundation in the text, but is a disturbing element from elsewhere. So far, therefore, as he has founded his judgment on this passage, he is without warrant. The respected Stier gives a well-meant warning against spiritualism. Yet one must be also on his guard against materialism; and we fear he has approached too near it (we will not say, fallen a prey to it) in the passage where he seeks to show that the shed blood of Christ, collected and separated from the body of Christ, exists in heaven. If he had rightly realized to himself the Logos, who is the life of all things, in His glory, he would have been as little troubled about the transformation of the pouredout blood of Christ, as about His poured-out sweat, or about His poured-out tears. [Stier refuses to accept the above explanation, and still denounces the author's statement as altogether improper and misleading;' though, when John himself calls our Lord the Saviour of the world, and when the author has precisely stated that by the world' he does not mean the world of unbelievers, it is difficult to see how he could further explain himself.—Ed.]

SECTION V.

THE FERMENTATION, THE STRIFE, AND THE INCIPIENT SEPARA

TION BETWEEN THE ELEMENTS AND FOLLOWERS OF THE LIGHT, AND THE ELEMENTS AND FOLLOWERS OF THE DARKNESS, UNDER THE INFLUENCE EXERTED BY CHRIST.

(Chap. vii. 11-x. 21.)

Under the influence of the power emanating from Christ, there had thus unfolded themselves, on the one hand, all kindred germs of life congenial to the light, which had been touched by the rays of His life; on the other, all the elements of darkness had been excited into opposition against Him. In this manner had the crisis, the separation between light and darkness within the sphere of His operations, been anticipated. But this could only take place gradually, as the result of a powerful fermentation, a violent struggle. The chief features of the fermentation which preceded the separation, present themselves in a series of facts.

Already, in the spirit which manifested itself at the feast of Tabernacles in Jerusalem, this fermentation made itself felt. Jesus had not come publicly to the celebration of the festival. But every one spake of Him. The Jews, says the Evangelist, sought Him at the feast-no doubt with hostile intention-and said, Where is he? And there was much murmuring among the people concerning Him. Some said, He is a good man. Others, on the contrary, said, Nay, but he deceiveth the people. No one, however, spoke freely and openly of Him, for fear of the Jews.

When, however, the middle of the feast had already come, Jesus went up into the temple and taught. Suddenly, therefore, He appeared amongst the multitude in the temple, and addressed the people. But immediately also the umbrage He gave, manifested itself in the most manifold forms.

The Jews—Judaists—expressed their surprise—that He taught—and said, “How knoweth this man letters —the writings of the doctors—having never learned—having never received

i Literature, not the Holy Scriptures ; see above, vol. iii. 279.

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the diploma of the Rabbis ?'—Jesus answered them, and said, “My doctrine is not Mine, but His that sent Me'—that is, He, as the highest teacher, has made Me a Rabbi.— If any man will do His will—will fulfil His will, as it has been made known to him, to the best of his knowledge and conscience—he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of Myself-thus without human warrant and teaching. He that speaketh from himself, seeketh his own glory; but he that seeketh his glory that sent him, the same is true, and there is no unrighteousness in him which should make his doctrine to be false.' Thus the true learning and the true orthodoxy rest on the pure intention, the right view on the right aim; and the test of this is, that one seek the glory of God. Without call and without warrant, on the other hand, are those who seek their own honour, even should they be graduated and in office. The Lord then goes back to the first origin of their learning, and examines whether they stand in the true succession, which has its starting point in Moses: “Did not Moses give you the law? and none of you doeth the law. Why seek ye to kill Me?'-against the law. A practical proof that they have entirely lost their rabbinical dignity. This charge did not merely relate to the attempt which the Sanhedrists had made on His life in the previous spring, at the feast of Purim (according to chap. v.), but also to the purpose with which they now again persecuted Him. The multitude, however, who were at present in the joyous mood associated with the celebration of the feast of Tabernacles, thought they must rebut this charge, and supposed that Jesus was under the influence, at a most unseasonable time, of a gloomy dejection and madness. “Thou hast a devil (of madness),' they said: who seeketh to kill thee ?' That the people, however, on the occasion of such hostile manifestations, already stood under the promptings of the pharisaical party, is shown by the answer of Christ, who boldly accuses His enemies of the attempt on His life, before the whole multitude. To their declaration regarding Himself, Jesus replied, “I have done one work, and ye all marvel at it. Moses gave unto you circumcision (not in the sense as if it were of Moses, but of the fathers); and ye on the Sabbath-day circumcise a man (Lev. xii. 3). If

1 The đòria is thus, according to John, the fountain of error. Comp. chap. iii. 20; 1 John iv. 1-6, v. 17, and other passages.

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