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it to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven; then come, and, taking up the cross, follow Me.' And he looked sad at that saying, and went away sorrowful; for he had great possessions. And Jesus looked around Him, and said unto His disciples, 'How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God! The disciples were astonished at His words. And Jesus (explaining) repeating the word, said, now • Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God!' Nevertheless He added, "It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God. The word of explanation might have seemed in some measure to compose their minds, but the strong addition caused them still greater disquiet than the original expression. They were astonished out of measure, and said among themselves, 'Who then can be saved ?' Jesus looked on them significantly, and uttered a word of strong consolation : ‘With men it is impossible, but not with God : with God all things are possible.'

On this Peter began to speak, and said unto Him, 'Lo, we have left all, and have followed Thee.' Jesus answered and said, “Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for My sake and the Gospels, who shall not receive now, in this present time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutionsin spite of the same; and in the world to come—the future æon of the world-eternal life,' the life which in its future consummation shall then first be wholly eternal life.

But that the disciples might not misinterpret this promise, or exalt themselves on account of it, the Lord added the words,

With many, however, shall it be thus: the first shall be last; and the last first.'

Thus does the Lord present, in a series of facts, in short, rapid sketches, with powerful decisive words, the sanctification of the family; namely, the sanctification of marriage, the sanctification of the children, and the sanctification of the possessions.

1 Not also fathers. The word wife, in like manner, naturally does not recur again. See above, vol. iii. p. 459.

NOTE.

The Evangelist Mark, like Matthew, comprehends the double sojourn of Jesus in Perea in one picture, yet gives it in a still shorter and more compressed form than the other. Peculiarities are the following :-He describes Jesus as passing far through Perea, to the border regions of Judea. The question about marriage, on the other hand, which the Pharisees submitted to Christ, he defines less exactly—only thus: Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? The nice distinction between Mwons ενετειλατο and επέτρεψεν υμίν, which occurs in Matthew, he passes by. The decisive declaration of Christ regarding divorce and adultery, he designates as one which Christ gave specially to His disciples in the house. Without doubt, he has in his eye the further explanation, which, according to Matthew, Jesus imparted specially to the disciples. These examples of want of precision are counterbalanced by exactness in historical detail. Comp. Saunier (120). Jesus was displeased with the disciples (ver. 14). He took the children in His arms, and blessed them. The rich young man comes running to the Lord on the way, and falls down before Him. Jesus, according to him, quotes among the commandments, the precept, Defraud not, or properly, Do not curtail—keep back, which has a special reference to the rich. He looks on the young man, and loves him. The summons addressed to the young man appears here in lively, abrupt sentences. One sees in the face of the young man the impression made by the words of Jesus, ó dè oturyváoas. Mark alone has the explanatory word, ver. 24. Likewise the pictorial climax, Οι δε περισσως εξεπλήσσοντο. The reference to the retribution of reward, which shall be the portion of His disciples in the world to come, which Matthew has at length, he gives only in brief words; on the other hand, he gives the promise of Christ, with reference to the present life, most fully.

SECTION XIV.

THE DEPARTURE OF JESUS TO JERUSALEM.

(Chap. x. 32-45.)

When the Lord and His disciples took their departure for Jerusalem, where death now awaited Him, the contrast between the frame of mind and hopes of His disciples, and the frame of mind in which He himself, with clear prescience of the future, willingly went to meet His death, appeared in all its strength.

Certainly the hope of the disciples was not altogether an undivided one. When they started on that journey which should conduct to the great decision, and the Lord-calm and firmwalked on before, they were moved by a heavy anxious foreboding; and although they willingly followed the Lord, their fear greatly increased on the road (ακολουθούντες εφοβούντο). This state of mind the Lord now sought to clear up; and calling the Twelve around Him, He announced to them more distinctly than ever the sufferings which were before Him. For He could not conduct His followers, without forewarning, into the very midst of His last sufferings: they should, and must now know in the most explicit manner, what awaited Him in Jerusalem, and must then freely decide whether they would follow Him there. Thus did He act towards them with divine openness and truthfulness.' 'Behold,' He said, 'we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the scribes (shall be betrayed into their hands); and they shall condemn Him to death, and shall deliver Him to the Gentiles : and they shall mock Him, and shall scourge Him, and shall spit upon Him, and shall kill Him; and the third day He shall rise again

However, notwithstanding this terribly distinct announcement regarding His impending sufferings, hope still maintained the upper hand in the company of the disciples. This hope lets itself be seen in the request of the sons of Zebedee, which at

1 A feature which those erase, who would consider such intimations of Christ as later inventions derived from the result. Here also the ethical and the religious hang together.

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this moment must excite extraordinary surprise. James and John, namely, came unto Him, and said, Master, we would that Thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire. And He said unto them, What would ye, that I should do for you?' They said unto him, 'Grant unto us, that we may sit, one on Thy right hand, and the other on Thy left, in Thy glory.' Then said Jesus unto them, “Ye know not what ye ask! Can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with ?' They said unto Him, “We can. Then spake Jesus, ‘Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of, and with the baptism that I am baptized with shall ye be baptized; but to sit on My right hand and on My left hand, that I have not to give in the form of an outward act), but to them for whom it is appointed (already appointed according to the eternal purpose of God, and to whom it shall be imparted in the form of historical development). And when the ten heard it, they began to express their displeasure at James and John. But Jesus called them to Him, and said unto them, 'Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the nations, exercise lordship over them, and that their great ones exercise high authority on them. But not so shall it be among you. But whosoever will be great among you, he shall be your minister; and whosoever of you will be the chiefest, he shall be the servant of all. For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many.'

NOTES.

1. Mark, as well as Matthew, omits here the journey of Jesus from Perea to Judea, the raising of Lazarus, and his sojourn in Ephraim.

2. The important communication regarding the anxious suspense of the disciples on their departure for Jerusalem, we owe to Mark alone (ver. 32). The enumeration of the sufferings which awaited Jesus, he gives in a specially solemn form. In the description of the request of the sons of Zebedee, he names, instead of the mother, the sons themselves. Matthew writes : Whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant. Mark writes: servant of

you all.

SECTION XV.

THE JOURNEY FROM JERICHO TO JERUSALEM.

(Chap. A. 46-xi. 11.)

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In the first instance, the Lord conducted His disciples to Jericho. From this city commenced the festive procession; for, besides His disciples, He was accompanied by a great concourse of people. On the way, however, by which He left the city, sat blind Bartimeus, (or) the son of Timeus, begging. And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth who passed by (the whole train was, in his eyes, Jesus of Nazareth), he began to cry out,

O Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy upon me!' And many charged him that he should hold his peace. But he cried out the more, • Thou son of David, have mercy upon me!' Jesus stood still, and commanded him to be called. And they called the blind man, and said unto him, “Be of good comfort, rise; He calleth thee!' Then casting off his upper garment, he rose and came to Jesus. And Jesus answered him—his

cry

for help—and said, 'What wilt thou that I should do unto thee?' The blind man said unto him, Rabboni'-addressing Him very emphatically with the title, my teacher— that I might receive my sight.' And Jesus said unto him, 'Go thy way; thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he received his sight, and followed Him (forthwith) in the way.

When now they approach near to Jerusalem-in the first place thus—to Bethphage and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives, Jesus sendeth two of His disciples, and saith unto them, “Go your way into the village over against you: and as soon as ye have entered into it, ye shall find a colt tied, whereon no man hath ever sat; loose him, and bring him hither. And if any man say unto you, Why do ye this ? say ye that the Lord hath need of him; and straightway he will send him hither. They went their way, and found the colt tied by the door without, on the public highway; and they loose him. And some of them that stood there said unto them, “What do ye, loosing the colt?' And they said unto them even so—said to them the watchword -as Jesus had commanded. Then let they them go. And they

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