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Henry was so cruel as not to allow her to have an interview with her daughter. (20) Page 40. When zealous Protestants alleged that the refusal to take these oaths implied the rejection of all innovations and of the law, now in force in the kingdom, and that it was therefore the duty of the government to punish it with rigour, we may grant this, so far as we recognise their point of view to be correct, but the opposite opinion was by no means unnatural; and milder treatment, very possible, without producing any danger. Soame, vol. I., p. 39. (21) Page 41. The number of monasteries founded under the several Kings was as follows:

William I. - - - 45 that is, in one year, 2,25 William II. - - - 29 - - - - . . . . . 2,41 Henry I. - - - 143 - - - - e s - e. 4,08 Stephen - - - - 146 - - - - - - - - 8, 11 Henry II. - - - 163 - - - - e - - e. 4,79 Richard I. - - - 52 - - - - - - - - 5,77 John - - - - - 81 - - - - - - - - 4,76 Henry III. - - - 211 - - - - - - - - 4,78 Edward I. - - - 107 - - - - - - - - 3,01 Edward II. - - - 42 - - - - e - e - 2,21 Edward III. - - - 74 - - - - - - - - 1,48 Richard II. - - - 21 - - - - - - - - l

Henry IV. - - - 12 - - - - - - - - 0,92 Henry V. - - - 4 - - - - - - - - 0,44 Henry VI." - - - 33 - - - - - - - - 0,86 Edward IV. - - - 15 - - - - - - - - 0,68


Short Sketch of the History of the Church of England. (22) Page 42. The more considerable Abbots were spared, perhaps, because they were members of the Upper House. Lingard, vol. VI., p. 305.

* There is some error here; Henry VI. reigned 56 years: 56 x .86=48. - Translator's Note.

(23) Page 43. For special reasons some Monks, or Convents, were treated rather more mildly. Soame, vol. II., p. 277–280; and others more severely when they had favoured the tumults, of which we shall presently speak. (24) Page 43. Nobody thought of improving the provision made for the parishes formerly annexed to the Monasteries. On the contrary, they lost much of their revenues and resources. Soame, vol. II., p. 296. (25) Page 46. Collier, vol. II., p. 166. Burnet, vol. I. p. 126. Herbert, p. 443. The books, says a contemporary writer, were used to clean candlesticks, wipe boots, &c. Soame, vol. II., p. 283. (26) Page 47. According to some estimates, the annual revenue of the Monasteries amounted to no more than about 170,000l.; and, after their dissolution, many resources certainly failed. The increasing value of landed property, however, formed a very large capital. (Short Sketch, vol. I., p. 220,) and the custom of demanding the payment of large sums, by way of premium, at the commencement of leases, of course diminished the amounts of the annual revenue, which alone appeared at the dissolution. Thus we see that Soame, vol. II., p. 280, thinks that the Monastic Clergy received, including the tithes, the fifth part of the rent of all the lands in England. (27) Page 47. However laudable was the dissolution in principle, it was marked by an inexcusable want of taste and liberality. Soame, vol. II., pp. 283—293–297. (28) Page 47. Besides the Bishops, there were only fortyone Temporal Lords in the Upper House. Henry, vol. XII., p. 150. Soame, vol. II., p. 208, speaks of forty-nine Spiritual and fifty-three Temporal Lords; the former were now diminished by twenty-seven or twenty-nine. (29) Page 49. The doubts expressed by Lingard, vol. VI., p. 504, respecting Anne's innocence, have not convinced me. I say with Bishop Godwin: without casting too much doubt on the credibility of public documents, even a resolution of the Parliament against her would not convince me. (Todd, vol. I., p. 159.) Soame judges in the same manner, saying, vol. II., p. 121, “According to the best decision which impartial posterity can come to, Anne's death is as scandalous a legal murder as ever disgraced a Christian country.” (30) Page 49. However, a short time before her execution, Anne sent to the King, saying, “That he had first raised her to the rank of Marchioness, and then to that of Queen, and that as no higher earthly dignity could be conferred on her, he was going to reward her innocence with the crown of martyrdom.” Bacon's Apophthegms, 3, Works, vol. II., p. 401. (31) Page 50. Cranmer confided to each of several Bishops the examination of a part of the translation of the Bible. Stockelsley, Bishop of London, returned his portion without looking at it, and said, “The reading of the Bible leads to heresy, I will not participate in the guilt of entangling the people in errors.” Another preached, “As Adam was expelled from Paradise for tasting the fruit of the tree of knowledge, so will those be who meddle with the Scriptures.” Soame, vol. II., p. 109–545. (32) Page 51. Henry, vol. XII., pp. 76–95. Gilpin, p. 60. So early as 1526, six thousand copies of a New Testament, in English, were printed at Worms. Spalat. Ann. p. 660. Nares, vol. I., p. 84. Respecting the printing of English Bibles, see State Papers, vol. II., for those years. (33) Page 52. Such a mixture of ideas appeared in the “Articles devised by the King's Highness to stable Christian Quietness and Unity among the People,” published in 1536. Soame, vol. II., p. 177. At all events the Protestants gained, while the Catholics lost. A general assembly of the Church was declined about this time on the part of England. (34) Page 53. Even the mother of Cardinal Pole, who was seventy years of age, and wholly innocent, was executed in 1541. Henry, vol. XI., p. 326.

(35) Page 53. The priests, said the Chaplain of the Duke of Norfolk, will no longer be permitted to have women, but the women will have priests. Soame, vol. II., p. 373. Cranmer was compelled to separate from his wife. (36) Page 54. The celebrated Melancthon also wrote to the King against the Six Articles. Todd, vol. I., p. 283. (37) Page 56. Cromwell made a report to the King on Anne's extraordinary beauty, according to the accounts of persons who had seen her. State Papers, vol. II., p. 162. (38) Page 56. Marillac, the French Ambassador, writes:— “Anne has not been found so young and so beautiful as everybody supposed. She has brought with her twelve or fifteen ladies, all of whom, in respect to their external appearance, are even inferior to herself, and are besides dressed in such an awkward and unbecoming manner, that they would be thought ugly even if they were really handsome.” Marillac dépéches d’Angleterre, adressées au roi et au Connétable Montmorency. Anno 1539 —1540. Bibl. Roy. MSS. 8481, fol. (39) Page 56. In his dispatch of 31st of July, 11th of August, and 3d of September, Marillac writes: “Anne makes no opposition whatever to the divorce, at which the King is the more pleased, because, as it is said, his new favourite, (Amourette,) is already with child. The former is now called merely Madam Anne of Cleves. She is anything but lowspirited, amuses herself in all possible ways, and dresses every day in new clothes, made in a strange fashion. All this is an indication of admirable prudence and dissimulation, or of extraordinary simplicity and stupidity.” Anne remained in England, was very popular, and died on the 15th of July, 1557. Hollinsh. vol. IV., p. 68. Collins, vol. II., p. 48. (40) Page 57. Marillac in this report (of Sept. 3,) uses the same expression in speaking of the new Queen Catharine Howard, as he did of Anne of Cleves: he says she was “de WOL. I. I

beauté moyenne.” She and all the ladies of the court were dressed after the French fashion. (41) Page 57. Cromwell seems also to have severely censured the immoral conduct of the Nobility. Hardwicke's State Papers, vol. I., p. 21. (42) Page 58. On the scaffold she said she was justly condemned. Ellis, vol. II., p. 129. Even before she behaved as if beside herself. State Papers, vol. II., No. 162–175. (43) Page 58. Those too were condemned, who had been acquainted with the Queen's conduct, and had given no information respecting it. Herbert, p. 473–474. Soame, vol. II., p. 493. (44) Page 59. Mary was compelled to acknowledge the King's ecclesiastical legislation, and the illegality of his marriage with Catharine. Madden, p. 71. (45) Page 61. Norfolk is to be reproached as having been the first to propose the six Articles. (46) Page 62. Salmon, (Crit. Review, of the State Trials, p. 11,) says: “His reign was the most tyrannical, arbitrary, and cruel in the English history. What was developed in England during his reign was rather an effect of the general excitement of people's minds, than proceeding from the will or profound views of the King.” (47) Page 63. Respecting the education and knowledge of Edward, see Turner's History of Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth, p. 131. Among the MSS. formerly belonging to the library of St. Germain des Prés, there is an interesting account of Edward's Court, and of the manners of that time, in a description of England, written in 1551, by an eye-witness—the Florentine Petruccio Ubaldini. It commences with detailed accounts of the Court, the dignities of the State, the ceremonies, palaces, manners, customs, &c.; it then proceeds, “Many other ceremonies are observed when one of the King's sisters eats with him. For she is not allowed to sit either under the canopy or in an arm

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