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chair, (cadrega,) but on a bench which is provided with a cushion, and so far from the head of the table and from the King, that the canopy does not hang over her. But the ceremonies which are observed before they sit down to table are truly ridiculous: thus I have seen the Princess Elizabeth kneel before her brother five times before she sat down. The same takes place before any one speaks to the King, and if the Lords about the court are less strict in the observance of this custom, it is because they feel themselves secure in consequence of the King's youth, and they would not have ventured on such an omission towards his father, whom nobody addressed otherwise than kneeling.” Col ginocchio in terra. “Edward VI. is fond of dressing in red, white, and violet, (pavonazzo,) and this latter colour is so much his own, that nobody would venture to wear a hat of that colour. His livery is green and white. As the English generally dress well and expensively, Edward, though he by no means comes up to his father in this respect, has all his clothes embroidered with gold, silver, and pearls. He has a good demeanour, a dignified deportment, much gracefulness and propriety in all he does, and is very affable and courteous to the people.” Ubaldini then mentions the custom of making presents to the King at the new year, and relates particulars concerning the laws, the authorities, the army and navy, religion, &c., which are accurate enough, but contain nothing new. He then enters into a general description of the English character, from which I take the following details. “The English, in general, spend the whole of their income. They eat frequently, and sit two, three, or even four hours at table; not so much for the sake of eating as for that of agreeable conversation with the ladies, without whose company no banquet is ever given. They are averse to exertion, and sow so little corn that the produce is scarcely sufficient for their subsistence. Accordingly they eat but little bread, but so much
the more meat, which they have of every kind and of the best qualities. Puddings and cheese are everywhere met with, for numberless flocks feed day and night in the most fruitful pastures. There are no wolves, but vast numbers of deer, wild boars, and other game. They are fond of the chase, and are very hospitable. “The women are by no means inferior in beauty, grace, dress, and manners, to the Siennese, or the most admired ladies of Italy. The Lords have a very numerous retinue; a servant generally receives two suits, of little value, in a year, eight crowns, and his board, or, instead of the latter, sixpence a day. The people are in general rather tall, but most of the nobles short, which comes from the custom of marrying rich damsels under age. The men and women are fair, but, to preserve or improve their natural complexion, they are bled two or three times in a year, instead of painting themselves, like the Italian ladies. “The men are naturally obstinate, so that if any person is obliged to contradict them, he must take care not to offend them at the outset,_Non bisogna al primo urtarli, but produce his arguments by degrees, which, from their natural talents, they readily appreciate. Many who were not aware of this peculiarity in the English character, have found it difficult to negociate with such suspicious people. “The lower classes in the towns, and some of the country people, dislike foreigners, and think that no country in the world is to be compared with their own. But they are corrected in these absurd notions by those who have more sense and experience. On this account, however, it is not advisable for foreigners to travel about the country, because they generally enquire, in the first instance, whether the English are well or ill received in the country of the traveller. If, however, he has a royal passport, he is not only well received everywhere, but is forwarded with the horses kept for the service of the court, or may, in case of need, require them from private persons. The behaviour of the higher classes is very different in this respect, for there is no nobleman in the country who does not like to
have foreign servants and gentlemen about him, to whom they pay high salaries, and the King himself has many Italians and Spaniards, (French?) of various professions, in his service. These are much in favour with the courtiers, who like to learn Italian or French, and study the sciences. The rich cause their sons and daughters to study, to learn Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, for since this storm of heresy has invaded the country, it is considered to be useful to read the Scriptures in the original language. Poorer people, who are not able to give their children a learned education, are unwilling to appear ignorant or destitute of refinement, and we therefore see them on Sundays and holidays well, nay, even better dressed than becomes their station. Men and women generally wear fine black cloth with well-wrought ribbons and trimmings, and thus following the expensive habits of the nobility, they do honour to the town and to the court. “The noble ladies may easily be distinguished from those who are not noble. The former wearing a hat (ciapperone) in the French fashion, and the latter a cap (acconciatura) of fur or white cloth, according to their rank and the English custom. Their marriage ceremonies are not different from those of other countries, but they marry early, and even for a second or third time; nay, married people sometimes contract an engagement with another man or woman, in case their present partner should die.” (48) Page 66. Respecting the progress of ecclesiastical reformation in England as compared with Calvinism, see Todd's Life of Cranmer, vol. II., chap. 12 and 13, on a Scheme of new Ecclesiastical Laws, which however was never carried into effect. (49) Page 66. A second collection of Homilies appeared in the year 1560. Soame, vol. III., p. 56. (50) Page 66. Some could say the Paternoster in Latin, but not in English. Few could say the Ten Commandments: few could prove the Articles of Faith by scripture; that was out of their way. Nares, vol. I., p. 340.
(51) Page 67. According to other accounts he was treated indulgently, and only the admission of certain persons, and his correspondence restricted. Soame, vol. II., p. 95. (52) Page 69. First of all a Catechism, by Justus Jonas, was translated, with improvements by Cranmer; then one of his own was published in 1549, and annexed to the Liturgy. Todd, vol. II., p. 48–63. The latest changes were made under James I. (53) Page 71. Turner, p. 150, on the machinations of the French and their wish to excite a civil war in England. Nares, vol. I., p. 297. - (54) Page 72. “And yet this Liturgy was altered in many points only two years later.” Soame, vol. III., p. 401—594. (55) Page 73. Burnett, vol. II., p. 49–59. Collier, p. 303. Strype, vol. III., p. 6.—People said to give licence to sin was sin. Nares, vol. I., p. 433. (56) Page 73. Though Todd, (vol. II., p. 149,) adduces some arguments to represent the matter and Cranmer's participation in a milder light, there still remain sufficient grounds for severe censure. Only the Roman Catholics are not entitled to express it, because they punished heresy with death. (57) Page 73. Some persons, though without any conclusive proof, doubt this expression of Edward's. Soame, vol.III., p.545. (58) Page 74. Recourse was had to the injudicious measure of fixing the price of many articles by law. (59) Page 76. Henry VIII. had appointed Dudley admiral for life, which dignity Somerset took from him and gave to his brother Seymour. Dudley, however, was elevated on the same day to the rank of Earl of Warwick, and received, as an indemnity, considerable estates and revenues. Collins, Sydney Papers, vol. I., p. 20. (60–61) Page 76–78. These with many other particulars are given in a “Relation de l'Accusation et Mort du Duc de Somerset.” St. Germain, vol. DCCXL. (62) Page 80. William Thomas, one of his teachers, drew up the most subtle themes on the subject of history and politics, to read and discourse to him upon them. Strype, vol. II., p. 162, Burnett, vol. I. p. 148. Yet many circumstances seem to prove that Edward was deficient in real' energy of character and superiority of understanding. Turner, p. 180. (63) Page 80. Instances were adduced likewise from the English history, in which the other order of succession had been departed from. Soame, vol. III., p. 764.
(64) Page 81.
Henry VII. r —A- Henry VIII. Margaret. Mary. 2–~~ Married James IV. Married (1st) Louis XII. Mary—Elizabeth. | (2d) Charles Duke of Suffolk. James V.
| Frances. Mary Stuart. Married Henry Gray.
Frances renounced her claims in favour of Jane, whom Northumberland and the great nobility thought it would be more easy to govern. (65) Page 83. Lingard, vol. VII., p. 154, perhaps not without reason, whether Jane's arguments, on her refusal, were so forcible and just. Only it is a question whether the latter in Pollini, to which he refers, is genuine. (66) Page 84. But a few days before, Arundel had declared with others for Jane. Strype, Men. Cranm. App. p. 903. (67) Page 86. Mary was born on the 18th of February, 1516, and therefore was 37 years of age; and after the fall of her mother, she had been treated with neglect. Madden's Privy-purse Expenses of the Princess Mary, p. 18–57–59. (68) Page 86. Ambassades de Renaud, vol. III. (69) Page 89. The Disciples of Luther betrayed the very temper of the usurpation which their master had so daringly opposed; raising the cry of persecution against the strangers, as enemies to the doctrine of con-substantiation,--a dogma