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to the King and Queen, shall be as legal as if it were convoked by order of their majesties, supposing that the disturbances are suppressed, and that every person entitled to a seat may appear without danger. It shall, above all things, examine the state of religious affairs, and take the necessary measures for the government of the kingdom during the absence of the King and Queen. Without its assent, war cannot be declared nor peace concluded. . As England and Ireland belong by right to Elizabeth, Francis and Mary shall not use the titles and arms of those kingdoms. (*) The convention shall be ratified by both parties within sixty days.” On the part of Elizabeth this was done on the 2d of September, and she reaped the glory of having, in a very short time, by her firmness and prudence, driven the French from Scotland, secured England, and gained the attachment of the Scotch. Meantime the Scotch Parliament assembled on the 1st of August, more numerous than it had been for a long time, and attended even by the inferior nobility, and began, according to preceding examples and the terms of the treaty, to proceed to business before the arrival of a royal plenipotentiary. (*) On the 17th of August the Protestants not only presented a confession of faith, but developed, with great rigour and harshness, the defects of the ancient church. (*) No clergyman

came forward to defend the latter, either through fear, or in hopes of more favourable times; but instead of thereby conjuring the storm, the innovators became bolder, and said, “That it was only because the entire undeniable right was on their side that the adherents of the old faith did not attempt to make any defence.” Thus, with the opposition of only three Lords, the Catholic worship was abolished, and every connection with the Pope broken off. Nay, not contented with the recognition and toleration of their doctrines, the oppressed, according to the violent spirit of those times, soon became oppressors, and decreed, “That whoever dared to read, or to hear mass, should lose for the first offence all his property; for the second suffer corporal punishment and banishment, and for the third be put to death.” (”) It appears that all those who were inclined to the reformed religion agreed in this tyranny, but when the question was to be decided how the ancient property of the Church should in future be applied, there appeared a great difference of opinions and motives, for besides the Catholic possessors, to whom the surrender of the property seemed contrary to justice and duty, the converted Abbots and Prelates, and also the nobility, demanded a large portion, and the reformed Clergy the whole for themselves, as well as for the churches, the schools, and the poor. Lastly, some thought of the State, which was in extreme need, and to which, without regard to vehement opposition, a third part was adjudged in December, 1560. At the same time laws were drawn up for the future Constitution of the Church, and for divine worship, under the titles of “Book of Policy, or Discipline, Book of Common Order.” According to the first, after the abolition of the degrees of the hierarchy, the congregations should choose the priests, who, in provincial assemblies, and, lastly, in the highest instance, in a general assembly under a president who was likewise to be elected, should preside over the legislation and government of the Church. (*) In favour of this democratic system of the Presbyterians, there was the attachment of Knox, and many of the clergy, to Calvin; also the inclination of the people to deviate, as far as possible, from Catholicism; the hope of the nobility to acquire by this form a larger portion of the Church property; and, lastly, the apprehension of a new and dangerous preponderance of the Clergy. The new Liturgy was simple, leaving however to the clergy and to the congregations certain liberties, which, in the sequel, under Charles I., they firmly insisted on. Many of the regulations on education, the schools, the Universities, the poor, &c. deserve praise. The Church discipline appears to be rigorous, and refers to many subjects which the ordinary administration of justice could not well reach and check: Elders chosen among the best men in the congregation not only assisted the Clergy in these matters, but were to have a watchful eye upon the diligence and morals of the Clergy themselves. The sacrament was administered four times in the year, a sermon preached on the Sunday morning, and at least once in the week, but on Sunday afternoon the youth were instructed. The sign of the cross, kneeling, observance of saints' days, and many other things, declared superstitious, were abolished. Nay, it was resolved, not in an ebullition of passion, but with great solemnity, and with the assent of ecclesiastical zealots, that all abbeys, convents, and conventual churches, libraries, works of art, nay, even the sepulchres, as seats of the ungodly, and occasions to sin and idolatry, should be destroyed. What had formerly been saved from the fury of the mob, now fell prostrate before this legal madness, and the destruction was effected in the greatest extent, and with extreme harshness and brutality. (*) When Francis and Mary, and her uncles, were made acquainted with all these revolutions and events, their alarm and anger knew no bounds. No where, said the Cardinal of Lorraine to the English ambassador, Throckmorton, is there an appearance of the obedience promised in the peace, and while the King and Queen govern only in name, it is, in truth, Elizabeth, who has the rule. Mary added angrily, “The Scotch do what they please, and always talk of laws, while they observe none. They have sent hither a poor nobleman, and to London a splendid embassy, but I am their Queen, and they shall be taught their duty.” The feeble Francis repeating these words, added,— “They shall learn and feel what it is to be disobedient to so great a King.” All unanimously affirmed, that without the presence of the royal commissioner, the Parliament ought not to have acted or taken any resolutions, and least of all carried them into effect without their Majesties' sanction. The Scotch answered, “The royal commissioner might and ought to have come at the right time, as was promised; that things which concerned the welfare of the State, and the salvation of the soul, could not be indefinitely delayed, and that it was only by the Parliament's assuming the direction of the whole government, that the greatest dangers had been averted. The King and Queen, if present, would easily be convinced, or might have been convinced, of the necessity and propriety, as well as the universal popularity, of the resolutions; and, in fact, they were so consonant to the wishes and inclinations of the people, that almost all of them were carried into effect before they received the

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