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Though the Duke by no means acknowledged the truth of all the points adduced against him, but persevered, in the main, in his above-mentioned assertions, four and twenty peers, founding their decision on letters, the depositions of witnesses, and other proofs, unanimously pronounced sentence of death. Elizabeth long hesitated whether she should spare the Duke on his humble petition, or, in such dangerous times, cause him to be executed as a warning to others. An attempt to deliver him from prison, and the positive desire of the Parliament, led, perhaps, to the last fatal decision: he was executed on the 2d of June, los2, after confessing on the scaffold, the smaller portion of his guilt, but denying the heaviest charges. It can scarcely be believed that he spoke the whole truth; but he was a weak man, little more than a tool in the hands of others, who undoubtedly entertained the most criminal projects. That Mary was privy to them, and had a great share in them, has been clearly shewn by her letters and other proofs; her conduct may, however, be so far justified, as she considered herself to be now in a state of hostility with Elizabeth; the success of the plans that had been formed, and which the Pope and the King of Spain favoured to the utmost of their power, would inevitably have caused a total revolution in Church and State.

On these considerations the Parliament called on 3

Elizabeth to treat Mary with greater rigour, but she was as little disposed to comply with such a request, as to listen to the intercession of Charles IX., in favour of the captive Queen. The King of France was answered, that he ought to take the part of King James rather than that of his guilty mother, who was kept, for her own security, in honorable confinement; that in France itself, Kings, Queens, and other enemies to the government, had been confined for the preservation of tranquillity and order; for instance, the consorts of Louis Huttin, Philip the Long, Charles the fair, as also Louis Sforza, and others; though Elizabeth did not deny that these great examples never appeared to be perfectly equitable. Without any regard to Mary, a treaty between Elizabeth and Charles, for

their reciprocal support, was concluded at Blois, on the 11th of August, 1572.(*)


(1) Page 124. There were more deputies of the inferior nobility than of the towns. There were no Representatives of the Freeholders of the Counties. (2) Page 125. According to Wallace, “The Nature and Extent of Ancient Peerages,” p. 123, the majority of voters in the three divisions of the three estates, was required to convert a bill into a law: but if a veto was not allowed to the King, it could still less be given to a single estate, and the whole Parliament formed, in fact, but one House, though the component parts were by no means wholly blended together, Henry, vol. XII., p. 177—190–196. Robertson's History of Scotland, vol. I., p. 78–83. Laing's History of Scotland, vol. III., p. 30. Andrews, vol. II., p. 42. (3) Page 125. Collier, vol. II., p. 467. Waller, p. 344. Belsham's History of Great Britain, vol. I., p. 307. James VI. brought the discussion to only four persons, one out of each division. Andrews, vol. II., p. 42. (4) Page 126. According to Spotswood, p. 76, many of the Clergy were so ignorant, that they believed that Luther had written the New Testament. (5) Page 127. In 1527, Hamilton, a noble youth, who became acquainted with Luther's doctrines in Germany, was burnt, as were many others in the following years. (6) Page 127. Stuart's Reform, p. 17. Sir Ralph Sadler's Letters contain the most complete account of the relations of Scotland and England in the year 1540–1543.

(7) Page 129. Knox, p. 94. Holinsh., vol. V., p. 530. Arran was ex amita Cardinalis natus, which increased his hopes. Buchan, p. 477. Beatoun had several natural daughters, one of whom he endowed with almost royal magnificence. Id. p. 502. Guthrie's History of Scotland, vol. V. p. 299. Henry had offered his daughter Elizabeth in marriage to the Earl of Arran. Aikin's Life of Elizabeth, vol. I., p. 15.

(8) Page 131. For, vol. II., p. 616. State Trials, vol. IV., p. 117. The Abbot of Fearn, who had been at Wittenberg, was likewise burnt. Cook, vol. J., p. 142.

(9) Page 134. According to Cook's History of the Reformation, vol. II., p. 57, Mary was compliant in order to succeed in her plans respecting the matrimonial crown.

(10) Page 137. Falsis virtutum coloribus, gratiorem fecerat aulica educatio, minime quidem illa sincera, sed ad honesti quandam similitudinem adumbrata, et quae nature bonitatem, studio et placendi cura, deteriorem faceret; et virtutum semina delinimentis voluptatum retunderet, quo minus ad maturos fructus pervenirent. Buchan, p. 560.

(11) Page 137. Dumont, vol. IV., p. 1. Doc. 14, 15. She also declared that Scotland owed to the French a million for her education and maintenance. Turner's Elizabeth, p. 547. By all this, as Cook, p. 11—23 remarks, “all confidence in future concessions of Mary was lost.” - (12) Page 138. Mary caused the arms of England to be painted, wrought, stamped, engraved, on all carpets, cushions, household furniture, utensils, vases, &c. (Lesleus de reb. Scot. p. 503.) She had them displayed at tournaments, and in the courts of justice. Hayne's State Papers, p. 252. An inscription, at the entrance of Francis and Mary into Chatellerault, said: (England was now united with France.)

- Ergo pace potes Francisce, quod omnibus armis

Mille patres, annis non potuere tui. Hallam's Constitutional History, vol. I., p. 176: Hardwicke, vol. I., p. 131.

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Another inscription ran:
Nunc Gallos, totoque remotos orbe Britannos

Unum dos Mariae coget in imperium.
Nares, vol. II., p. 30.

King Francis I., signed Anno regni nostri Angliae et Hiberniae primo. Ibid. vol. II., p. 150–194. (13) Page 138. Keralio, vol. V., p. 133. Rapin, vol. V., p. 436. Henry VIII. disliked King James of Scotland and his Queen, Mary Guise, for several reasons. Nares, vol. II., p. 193. (14) Page 141. At first it was rather more probable that Mary would have the advantage over Elizabeth than the contrary. The relative situations of each changed gradually, chiefly because the former lost the love of her subjects, whereas the latter knew how to gain and to preserve the affection of hers. (15) Page 141. According to some, Elizabeth was born on the 13th, towards midnight. Soame, vol. I., p. 399. (16) Page 142. Elmer, quoted by Turner, p. 312, says, “There never came gold or stone upon her head, till her sister forced her to lay off her former soberness;” in the sequel, however, Elizabeth's habits, in this respect, were changed. (17) Page 147. Thucyd., vol. II., p. 60. Elizabeth called him her spirit. Thomson's Life of Raleigh, p. 131. (18) Page 147. Master of Requests, afterwards Secretary. Nares, vol. I., p. 178–304–310, who adduces ample proofs of his activity and influence, under the reign of Edward VI. (19) Page 147. “Burghley delythe with matters of the State only. With these love matters he will not meddle any way.” Lodge, vol. II., p. 101. (20) Page 147. He had indeed sometimes reason to complain, (Hardwicke, vol. I., p. 178,) but he always became reconciled to the Queen. They were made for each other. (21) Page 149. Soame endeavours to prove that the Bishop of Carlisle was chosen for this office from particular reasons, vol. II., p. 617. In the Parliament which met on the 25th of


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